Jimm Erickson

Legal Issues of the 21st Century

Spring 2004


      The following is a fairly comprehensive bibliography of law review articles centered upon (or substantially involving) space law and published during the past decade.


      Some of the categories overlap.  For example, "orbital rights" is included with "Satellites," but is also a property issue.  "Space Debris" also may implicate "Torts" and "General International."  Issues involving private investment and travel in space are heavily tort-oriented, but are more properly grouped as "Property" issues.  The phrase "common good of mankind" sometimes relates to international agreements, and sometimes is code (employed approvingly or critically) for a pro- or anti-laissez faire approach to property in space.  Thus titles featuring this phrase appear under both "Property" and "General International."


      Except for the catch-all categories of "General International" and "General," the categories are given in order of number of articles; "Intellectual Property," however, has been appended to the end of "Property" in general.


      However, regarding this ordering of subjects in terms of most popular:  Note that in terms of articles published since 2000, "Satellites" (7 articles) and "Military and Defense" (6) are hotter topics than "Property" (5); perhaps also notably, two of the three "Global Protection" (asteroids) articles are post-2000.  Meanwhile, the catch-all "General International" was much hotter in the 90s than more recently; only four of those seventeen articles are post-2000.


      As an example of overlap, typical of most of these articles:  The student moot court briefs under "Torts" deal with a hypothetical clash between two launch-capable nations after a disaster in space.  Clearly, this topic also entails issues such as "Environmentalism," "Satellites," "Property," and "General International."








Summer, 2003, 35 Conn. L. Rev. 1753, 17485 words, NOTE: Creating Momentum in Space: Ending the Paralysis Produced by the "Common Heritage of Mankind" Doctrine, Lynn M. Fountain

July, 2002, 90 Geo. L.J. 2413, 17373 words, NOTE: The Need to Clarify the Status of Property Rights in International Space Law, Kelly M. Zullo


SPRING, 1994, 7 Harv. J. Law & Tec 333, 20017 words, ARTICLE: Heaven Or Hell: The Future Of The United States Launch Services Industry, Jon C. Garcia                

Fall, 2002, 67 J. Air L. & Com. 1071, 16229 words, ARTICLE: Future Protocol On Security Interests In Space Assets, Paul B. Larsen

Winter, 1998, 64 J. Air L. & Com. 245, 11226 words, COMMENT: Risk Analysis And The Regulation Of Reusable Launch Vehicles, Roscoe M. Moore, III


Summer, 1999, 64 J. Air L. & Com. 703, 27971 words, ARTICLE: Unidroit Project On Security Interests: How The Project Affects Space Objects, Paul B. Larsen , Juergen A. Heilbock


Fall, 1999, 20 NW. J. INT'L L. & BUS. 59, 21030 words, ARTICLE: Owning Outer Space, Ezra J. Reinstein           


1994, 3 D.C.L. J. Int'l L. & Prac. 359, 6730 words, Sovereignty And Property Rights In Outer Space, Eric Husby


Spring, 1997, 65 UMKC L. Rev. 589, 29614 words, NOTE: Space Law: Legal Restraints On Commercialization And Development Of Outer Space, Ty S. Twibell


2003, 36 Suffolk U. L. Rev. 695, 9619 words, NOTE: Space Tourism: Fanny Packs, Ugly T-Shirts, and the Law in Outer Space, R. Thomas Rankin


December, 1994, 42 UCLA L. Rev. 575, 14251 words, COMMENT: Moving The Heavens: Lunar Mining And The "Common Heritage Of Mankind" In The Moon Treaty, Brian M. Hoffstadt


1998 / 1999, 26 W. St. U.L. Rev. 47, 10169 words, ARTICLE: An Examination of the Need to Amend Space Law to Protect the Private Explorer in Outer Space, Lawrence L. Risley      


Spring, 2003, 21 Wis. Int'l L.J. 409, 8485 words, NOTES AND COMMENTS: The Common Heritage Of Mankind Principle And The Deep Seabed, Outer Space, And Antarctica: Will Developed And Developing Nations Reach A Compromise?, Jennifer Frakes     


Spring, 1997, 15 Wis. Int'l L.J. 421, 12154 words, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ISSUES IN EAST ASIA PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1997 SYMPOSIUM: ARTICLE AND COMMENT: Space Law Versus Space Utilization: The Inhibition Of Private Industry In Outer Space, Richard Berkley



Fall, 1999, 17 B.U. Int'l L.J. 311, 25994 words, ARTICLE: International Law Of Outer Space And The Protection Of Intellectual Property Rights, Leo B. Malagar , Marlo Apalisok Magdoza-Malagar


Spring, 1999, 6 J. Intell. Prop. L. 395, 11563 words, NOTE: The Patents In Space Act: Jedi Mind Trick Or Real Protection For American Inventors On The International Space Station?, Jocelyn H. Shoemaker







2001, 50 A.F. L. Rev. 253, 12975 words, ARTICLE: U.S. National Security And Government Regulation Of Commercial Remote Sensing From Outer Space, Captain Michael R. Hoversten


1998, 23 Brooklyn J. Int'l L. 853, 16331 words, NOTE: Cultural Lag And The International Law Of Remote Sensing,  Susan M. Jackson


Fall, 2000, 15 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1095, 23499 words, ARTICLE: A Lost Connection: Geostationary Satellite Networks and the International Telecommunication Union, By Lawrence D. Roberts


Fall, 2001, 33 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus. 99, 23375 words, NOTE: Proposed Legal Structure for the Silksat Satellite Consortium: A Regional Intergovernmental Organization to Improve Telecommunications Infrastructure in Central Asia and the Trans-Caucasus Region, Lee Berger


2002, 10 CommLaw Conspectus 207, 18241 words, ARTICLE: Scarcity in Space: The International Regulation of Satellites,  Adrian Copiz


Spring, 1998, 5 Ind. J. Global Leg. Stud. 739, 11132 words, Comment: The Benefits of Low-Earth Orbiting Satellite Technology for the International Community: Can the Potential be Realized?, Mark Nogueira       


May / June, 1998, 63 J. Air L. & Com. 849, 12125 words, COMMENT: The Paper "Satellite" Chase: The Itu Prepares For Its Final Exam In Resolution 18, Henry Wong

August / September, 1996, 62 J. Air L. & Com. 279, 16384 words, COMMENT: Space For Rent: The International Telecommunications Union, Space Law, And Orbit/Spectrum Leasing, Jannat C. Thompson


2000, 9 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 152, 27172 words, STUDENT ARTICLE: Environmental Monitoring's Undiscovered Country: Developing A Satellite Remote Monitoring System To Implement The Kyoto Protocol's Global Emissions-Trading Program,  Allison F. Gardner       

Summer, 2003, 24 U. Pa. J. Int'l Econ. L. 289, 13590 words, ARTICLE: Balancing Equity and Efficiency Issues in the Management of Shared Global Radiocommunication Resources, Rob Frieden


September, 1995 / October, 1995, 61 J. Air L. & Com. 243, 17786 words, COMMENT: Global Positioning System (Gps): Defining The Legal Issues Of Its Expanding Civil Use, Jonathan M. Epstein


Spring, 1996, 19 Seattle Univ. L. R. 539, 17067 words, FEDERAL PRODUCT LIABILITY LITIGATION REFORM: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND STATISTICS: COMMENT: The Implications of National Security Safeguards on the Commercialization of Remote Sensing Imagery, Youssef Sneifer


Spring, 1999, 28 Stetson L. Rev. 1091, 30630 words, ARTICLE: Moving Pictures: How Satellites, the Internet, and International Environmental Law can Help Promote Sustainable Development , Charles Davies , Susan Hoban  and Braden Penhoet


Spring, 2001, 19 Wis. Int'l L.J. 231, 11656 words, NOTE AND COMMENT: Give Me My Space: Implications for Permitting National Appropriation of the Geostationary Orbit, Susan Cahill







2002, 53 A.F. L. Rev. 135, 22814 words, ARTICLE: "Space Force Alpha": Military Use of the International Space Station and the Concept of "Peaceful Purposes", Major Christopher M. Petras      

2001, 50 A.F. L. Rev. 175, 17861 words, ARTICLE: An Army View of Neutrality in Space: Legal Options for Space Negation, Major David L. Willson      


2000, 48 A.F. L. Rev. 1, 62360 words, ARTICLE: Armed Conflict on the Final Frontier: The Law of War in Space, Major Robert A. Ramey


1995, 1995 Army Law. 19, 9213 words, ARTICLE: A Military Look into Space: The Ultimate High Ground, Major Douglas S. Anderson Judge Advocate, United States Air Force


Winter, 2000, 4 DePaul Int'l L.J. 17, 9147 words, ARTICLE AND ESSAY: Developing and Deploying Laser Weaponry in Space: Is It Legal?, Kimberly M. Schlie


Fall, 2002, 67 J. Air L. & Com. 1213, 23726 words, ARTICLE: The Use Of Force In Response To Cyber-Attack On Commercial Space Systems--Reexamining "Self-Defense" In Outer Space In Light Of The Convergence Of U.S. Military And Commercial Space Activities, Christopher M. Petras, Major, USAF


September, 1994 / October, 1994, 60 J. Air L. & Com. 237, 36560 words, Military Use Of Commercial Communication Satellites: A New Look At The Outer Space Treaty And "Peaceful Purposes", Richard A. Morgan


2001, 46 S.D. L. REV. 72, 14313 words, ARTICLE: Lillich On Interstellar Law: U. S. Naval Regulations, Star Trek, And The Use Of Force In Space, Thomas C. Wingfield       


1998 / 1999, 9 USAFA J. Leg. Stud. 121, 11474 words, ARTICLE: Legal Aspects of Offensive Information Operations in Space, Thomas C. Wingfield







Summer, 1996, 4 S. Cal. Interdis. L.J. 739, 17538 words, NOTE: The Need For International Agreements Concerning The Ozone Depleting Effects Of Chemical Rocket Propulsion, Lynn Anne Shapiro


Fall, 1997, 22 Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 181, 14488 words, NOTE: Lost In Space?: The Legal Feasibility Of Nuclear Waste Disposal In Outer Space, Robin Dusek


Spring, 2003, 40 Am. Bus. L.J. 635, 22442 words, Procedural Challenges To Environmental Regulation Of Space Debris, Robert C. Bird


Winter, 1998, 15 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. Law 319, 15054 words, SYMPOSIUM--LAW AND CIVIL SOCIETY: NOTE: Orbital Debris And The Spacefaring Nations: International Law Methods For Prevention And Reduction Of Debris, And Liability Regimes For Damage Caused By Debris, Peter T. Limperis    


Fall, 1997, 11 Fla. J. Int'l L. 613, 5530 words, COMMENTS: Orbital Debris: Another Pollution Problem For The International Legal Community, Lucinda R. Roberts 


Spring, 1998, 10 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 891, 14356 words, NOTE: Containing the Cosmic Crisis: A Proposal for Curbing the Perils of Space Debris, Jennifer M. Seymour        

Fall, 2000, 24 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 125, 15680 words, NOTE: Unidentified Orbital Debris: The Case for a Market-Share Liability Regime, By Mark J. Sundahl, Ph.D.


May, 1995 / June, 1995, 60 J. Air L. & Com. 1139, 21166 words, COMMENT: Space: The Cluttered Frontier, Christopher D. Williams







Fall, 2000, 13 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 269, 834 words, 2000 MANFRED LACHS SPACE LAW MOOT COURT COMPETITION: WINNING BRIEFS: Introduction, Stephanie Tai; 13 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 271, 12715 words, Applicant Brief, Colette Luchetta-Stendel and Robert McLaughlin; 13 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 303, 11940 words, Respondent Brief, Stephanie Tai and Todd Bissett       

February / March, 1998, 63 J. Air L. & Com. 517, 13982 words, ARTICLE: This Is Ground Control To Major Tom ... Your Wife Would Like To Sue But There's Nothing We Can Do  ... The Unlikelihood That The Ftca Waives Sovereign Immunity For Torts Committed By United States Employees In Outer Space: A Call For Preemptive Legislation, Lauren S.-B. Bornemann


1999, 22 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 323, Note, Establishing the Extraterrestrial: Criminal Jurisdiction and the International Space Station, Stacy J. Ratner.


1999, 22 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 249, Citizens Without a Forum: The Lack of an Appropriate and Consistent Remedy for United States Citizens Injured or Killed as the Result of Activity Above the Territorial Air Space, James A. Beckman







1997, 41 A.F. L. Rev. 119, 20505 words, ARTICLE: Planetary Defense: The Legality of Global Survival, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Kunich, USAF     


2003, 41 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 735, 25312 words, ARTICLE: The Duty to "Expect the Unexpected": Mitigating Extreme Natural Threats to the Global Commons Such as Asteroid and Comet Impacts with the Earth, Evan R. Seamone


March, 2002, 87 Iowa L. Rev. 1091, 18125 words, NOTE: When Wishing on a Star Just Won't Do: The Legal Basis for International Cooperation in the Mitigation of Asteroid Impacts and Similar Transboundary Disasters, Evan R. Seamone            






2000, 11 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 1, 27812 words, ARTICLE: A New Shoe Is Needed To Walk Through Cyberspace Jurisdiction, Susan Nauss Exon     

2002, 10 CommLaw Conspectus 191, 10764 words, ARTICLE: Where No Lawyer Has Gone Before? What A Cyberspace Attorney Can Learn from Space Law's Legacy,  David S. Weitzel






July, 1997, 91 A.J.I.L. 577, 1705 words, BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES: International Aviation And Outer Space Law And Relations. By S. Bhatt; The Never Ending Dispute: Delimitations Of Air Space And Outer Space. By Robert F. A. Goedhart


2002, 18 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. 507, 9304 words, CRITICAL ESSAY: Multinational Investment in the Space Station: An Outer Space Model for International Cooperation?, Lara L. Manzione


November, 2001, 23 Cardozo L. Rev. 149, 28714 words, ARTICLE: A View From 40,000 Feet: International Law And The Invisible Hand Of Technology, Colin B. Picker 


Spring, 1999, 11 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 647, 35845 words, NOTE: The Discovery of Lunar Water: An Opportunity to Develop a Workable Moon Treaty, Kevin V. Cook  


Spring, 1999, 5 ILSA J Int'l & Comp L 389, 2059 words, ARTICLE: The Future Of World Peace And Outer Space, Edward R. Finch


Fall, 1997, 4 ILSA J Int'l & Comp L 259, 14740 words, NOTE & COMMENT: Circumnavigating International Space Law, Ty S. Twibell


Fall, 1995, 2 ILSA J Int'l & Comp L 267, 7415 words, NOTE AND COMMENT: Redefining Freedom Of Speech Under International Space Law: The Need For Bilateral Communications Alliances To Resolve The Debate Between The "Free Flow Of Information" And "Prior Consent" Schools Of Thought, Albert N. Delzeit and Robin M. Wahl 


Fall, 1999, 64 J. Air L. & Com. 1033, 10924 words, ARTICLE: The International Space Station: Legal Framework And Current Status, Rochus Moenter


May, 1994 / June, 1994, 59 J. Air L. & Com. 907, 12416 words, Litigation With A Foreign Flavor: A Comparison Of The Warsaw Convention And The Hamburg Rules, Chaired by Robert M. Jarvis and Michael S. Straubel


Fall, 1994, 26 Rutgers L. J. 225, 7453 words, NOTE: The "Common Heritage Of Mankind" & The Final Frontier: A Revaluation of Values Constituting the International Legal Regime for Outer Space Activities, Harminderpal Singh Rana  


Winter, 2000, 42 S. Tex. L. Rev. 155, 14089 words, COMMENT: Star Wars And Space Malls: When The Paint Chips Off A Treaty's Golden Handcuffs, Julie A. Jiru


Fall, 1995, 9 Temp. Int'l & Comp. L.J. 333, 20191 words, COMMENTS: Space Station Alpha: International Shining Star Or Legal Black Hole?     


FALL, 1994, 25 U. Tol. L. Rev. 577, 20635 words, ARTICLE: The Interstellar Relations Of The Federation: International Law And "Star Trek: The Next Generation", Michael P. Scharf  and Lawrence D. Robert         


Fall, 1999, 7 Tulsa J. Comp. & Int'l L. 253, 20548 words, COMMENT: A State's International Legal Role: From the Earth to the Moon, Stacey L. Lowder    


Spring, 1994, 12 UCLA PAC. BASIN L.J. 295, 4308 words, SPECIAL SECTION: JAPAN TRADE: International Trade Conflict In High Technology Sectors: The Japanese Satellite Example, Glenn H. Reynolds [Note: He's "Instapundit"!]


1996 / 1997, 7 USAFA J. Leg. Stud. 159, 8788 words, ARTICLE: Legal Issues Surrounding the International Space Station, Andrew D. Watson  and William G. Schmidt


Winter, 2000, 25 Yale J. Int'l L. 145, 23692 words, ARTICLE: Towards a New Regime for the Protection of Outer Space as the "Province of All Mankind", David Tan







February / March, 1997, 62 J. Air L. & Com. 871, 20280 words, COMMENT: Free Flight: The Future Of Air Transportation Entering The Twenty-First Century, Bill Elder  


JULY, 1995, 11 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 345, 14931 words, ESSAY: Making The Final Frontier Feasible: A Critical Look At The Current Body Of Outer Space Law, Heidi Keefe


May, 1999, 108 Yale L.J. 1737, 19123 words, NOTE: Law's Empire and the Final Frontier: Legalizing the Future in the Earlyorpus Juris Spatialis, Barton Beebe