In the name of the Holy
Trinity I, Sabina Welserin,
begin this cookbook.
God grant me His holy
grace and wisdom
and understanding and judgment
with which I
through His Holy will live
here in this time and
with Him forever. Amen. anno 1553

1 To make steamed capons

Take a good capon - or several -, decorate it well with cloves, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon sticks and ginger and take a little salt. After that take a pewter pot into which the capon will fit. Seal it well so that no moisture can escape. Next pour a measure of Reinfal or Malavosia on the capon. Set the pot with the capon into a kettle of boiling water, let it cook for three or four hours and seal it up well so that no water is able to get in. Paste up the lid with dough and tie a small linen cloth around it, then you have a good dish.

2 To make capons or hens in a glass

Take a capon, or a hen, which should not be especially large, or a rooster. Scald it well and make it very clean, and when it is scalded, cut open the skin from around the neck for about a finger's length. Otherwise let the skin be entirely undamaged. Draw the neck completely out of the skin, in such a way that the wings are also skinned in this manner, until the small bones in the front are completely caught up in the skin. After that pull the skin from it as far as the knee, and that so that the feet and the head remain caught up in the skin. And when you have taken out the large bones and the flesh of the capon, or the hen, and emptied the skin completely, then take a white silk thread and sew the capon closed again. After that put one leg after the other into a glass vessel. And if the capon has claws on the feet, cut them off. Next put the skin entirely inside as far as the head, which does not go into it. You can cut it off. Then take the capon meat and chop it small. When it is finely chopped, then put an egg and good spices thereon, a little saffron, as much as one stuffs in a small hen for roasting, and with a funnel stuff it through the beak into the capon. Then the skin is once again filled, as if the capon were whole. Afterwards set the glass vessel into a pot of water and let it cook therein, then see you, that it is right. Slaughter the chicken or the capon only when it is to be prepared, so that it is not torn in the front. Pay attention afterwards to proceed carefully, so that the skin is not torn and remains whole.

3 A dish in various colors

A dish, in which each part has a different color, is made like so: Roast chickens on a spit, but do not put them too close together. And when they are roasted, make six colors, the white is made like so: Take an egg white, put a little flour into it, make a thin batter. Brown is made like so: Take sour cherry jam, make a brown batter with eggs and flour. The yellow make like so: Take egg yolks, some wheat flour, saffron and three or four eggs, out of which make a batter. Green is made as follows: Take parsley, and strain it together with eggs through a cloth, put flour with it and make a batter. Black, take flour and eggs, make a paste out of it, put powdered cloves therein which have steeped overnight in beaten eggs, put enough into it, so that it becomes truly black. When you have made the five colors after this fashion, then baste each chicken with its color and take care that it is no longer too hot. And when the color is dry and adheres, then draw the chickens off the spit and lay them next to the other roasted meats on a dish.

4 Wild game marinated in peppersauce

Boil fresh game in two parts water and one part wine, and when it is done, then cut it into pieces and lay it in a peppersauce. Let it simmer a while therein. Make [the sauce] so: Take rye bread, cut off the hard crust and cut the bread into pieces, as thick as a finger and as long as the loaf of bread is. Brown it over the fire, until it begins to blacken on both sides. Put it right away into cold water. Do not allow it to remain long therein. After that put it into a kettle, pour into it the broth in which the game was boiled, strain it through a cloth, finely chop onions and bacon, let it cook together, do not put too little in the peppersauce, season it well, let it simmer and put vinegar into it, then you have a good peppersauce.

5 How to cook a wild boar's head, also how to prepare a sauce for it.

A wild boar's head should be boiled well in water and, when it is done, laid on a grate and basted with wine, then it will be thought to have been cooked in wine. Afterwards make a black or yellow sauce with it. First, when you would make a black sauce, you should heat up a little fat and brown a small spoonful of wheat flour in the fat and after that put good wine into it and good cherry syrup, so that it becomes black, and sugar, ginger, pepper, cloves and cinnamon, grapes, raisins and finely chopped almonds. And taste it, however it seems good to you, make it so.

6 If you would make a yellow sauce

Then make it in the same way as the black sauce, only take saffron instead of the syrup and put no cloves therein, so you will also have a good sauce.

7 To make a sauce in which to put a haunch of venison

Lard it well and roast it and make a good sauce for it. Take Reinfal and stir cherry syrup into it, and fry Lebkuchen in fat and chop good sweet apples, almonds, cloves, cinnamon sticks, ginger, currants, pepper and raisins and let it all cook together. When you want to serve it, then pour the sauce over it. It is also for marinating a boar's head. Then cook it in two parts water and one third vinegar. The head of a pig is also made in this manner.

8 To make a sauce with apples for game and small birds

Take good apples and peel them and grate them with a grater and put a little fat in a pan over [the fire] and let it become hot and put the apples in it and let them roast therein. After that put good wine thereon, sugar, cinnamon, saffron and some ginger and let it cook together for a while, then it is ready. One should boil the small birds first and then roast them in fat.

9 To make a yellow sauce for game or birds

First put fat in a pan and fry some flour in it, then take some wine and three times as much of broth and put it into the pan and add to it ginger and pepper and color it yellow, then it is ready.

10 To make goose giblets

Take goose blood, take the feet, wings, stomach and neck and boil them in half water and half wine. Grate rye bread, fry it in fat, add to it also the blood from a goose and wine and some of broth in which the goose was cooked, sugar, ginger, pepper, cinnamon, cloves and let the peppersauce cook for a long while, as much as three hours. Then brown a few onions in fat and add the fat to the peppersauce, and when you would serve it sprinkle ginger thereon.

11 To make a yellow peppersauce

Make it as follows: Brown good flour in fat, pour wine and meat broth in it, add seasonings to it. When it is a fast day, however, then take pea broth instead of meat broth

12 To make a boar's head

Take a head, large or small, boil it in water and wine, and when it is done, see to it that the bones remain connected all together, and completely remove the meat from the bones of the head. Pull the rind off carefully, remove the white from the meat and finely chop the remaining boar's head meat, put it in a pan, season it well with pepper, ginger and a little cloves, nutmeg and saffron and let it become good and hot over the fire in the broth in which the head was cooked. Afterwards take the cooked head and place it on a white piece of cloth and lay the skin on the bottom of the cloth, then spread the chopped meat once again on the head and decorate it with the separated skin. And if you do not have enough from one head, then cut the rind from two and decorate the head completely, as if it were whole. After that take the snout and the ears out of the cloth. Also draw the teeth together again with the cloth while it is still hot, so that the head remains intact and let it lie together overnight. In the morning cut the cloth again from the head, then it remains all together. Spread it with a mince of apples, almonds and raisins. Then you have a lordly dish.

13 To make stuffed birds

Prepare them in the following manner: Take small wild birds, hold them with a finger and stuff them with eggs. Put some ground anise and juniper berries into them to avoid a gamy smell. Leave the feet and heads on the birds, stick them on a spit and roast them, but not too dry, and in a bowl make a sweet sauce with Reinfal for the birds. In this manner one can stuff other birds.

14 To prepare small birds

Take small birds and simmer them in broth. Afterwards take part of the birds and pound them in a mortar, also some juniper berries and caraway and strain it through a cloth and season it well. Let it boil in a pan and pour it on the cooked birds, following that let it boil up one more time and cook together.

Take a goose, stuff it with onions, peeled quinces, pears and bacon, stick it on a spit and roast it.


Afterwards take the goose blood, cook in it the feet, neck and wings with wine and water. Grate rye bread, fry it in fat, add to the mixture and season it well. Then prepare it as follows: Take toasted Semmel and strain them with wine through a cloth, likewise the broth in which the goose was cooked. Then finely chop onions with bacon, let them roast together, put fat into it and season it well.

17 To make goose soup

Make it as follows: Take a large pan and set it under the goose when you roast it. Let the fat drip into it. Take after that good milk, simmer it with sugar and put toasted bread into it.

18 A well roasted young goose

Then take the goose liver and with it ten plums and put them in the goose and sew it up underneath and put it on a spit. It will be good. And when you serve it then open it up.

19 Jugged hare

Take the hare, rinse the blood with wine and vinegar into a clean vessel, then chop the hare in pieces. Cook the front part in the blood. Take wine or water and stir it, until it is mixed with the blood, so that the blood does not clump. Take rye bread that is finely grated, fry it in fat and put it into the jugged hare. Season it well. You can also chop the lungs and the liver into pieces and roast them with the rye bread and put them into the jugged hare.

20 If you would roast a good fat quail

Then take a grape leaf and wrap it around, then it bastes itself and the fat remains therein.

21 A liver dish

Then take a liver from a lamb and cut it into little pieces the size of a calf's sweetbreads and wrap around each piece a small lamb's caul and stick it onto a spit and roast it like small spitted birds on a grill.

22 If you would make good marzipan

First take a half pound of almonds and soak them overnight in cold well water, take them out in the morning. Next pound them well until they become oily, pour a little rose water on them and pound them further. When they become oily again, then pour a little more rose water thereon. Do this until they no longer become oily. And pound the almonds as small as possible. After that take a half pound of sugar, pound not quite all of it in, leaving a little left over. Next, when the almonds and sugar are pounded well together, put them in a bowl, take the lid from a small box, loosen the rim completely, so that it can be detached and put back on again, however leave the lid and the rim together. Take wafers and make them about as wide as a pastry shell, very round. Spread the almond paste described above with the fingers onto the wafers, moistening the fingers with rose water and dipping the almond paste into the sugar, which you have kept in reserve. After that, when you have spread it out evenly with your hands, take the sugar that you have reserved and sprinkle it through a sieve evenly over the marzipan. And take a small brush and dip it in rose water and sprinkle the marzipan overall, so that the sugar is dissolved. Then let it bake. Check it often, so that it is not burnt. It should be entirely white. The amount of a half pound is necessary, so that the oil remains.

23 If you would make a good sausage for a salad

Then take ten pounds of pork and five pounds of beef, always two parts pork to one part of beef. That would be fifteen pounds. To that one should take eight ounces of salt and two and one half ounces of pepper, which should be coarsely ground, and when the meat is chopped, put into it at first two pounds of bacon, diced. According to how fat the pork is, one can use less or more, take the bacon from the back and not from the belly. And the sausages should be firmly stuffed. The sooner they are dried the better. Hang them in the parlor or in the kitchen, but not in the smoke and not near the oven, so that the bacon does not melt. This should be done during the crescent moon, and fill with the minced meat well and firmly, then the sausages will remain good for a long while. Each sausage should be tied above and below and also fasten a ribbon on both ends with which they should be hung up, and every two days they should be turned, upside down, and when they are fully dried out, wrap them in a cloth and lay them in a box.

24 How one should make Zervelat [1]

First take four pounds of pork from the tender area of the leg and two pounds of bacon. Let this be finely chopped and add to it three ounces of salt, one pound of grated cheese, one and one half ounces of pepper and one and one half ounces of ginger. When it is chopped then knead the following into it, one and one half ounces cinnamon, one fourth ounce of cloves, one fourth ounce of nutmeg and one ounce of sugar. The sausage skins must be cleaned and subsequently colored yellow, for which one needs not quite one fourth ounce of saffron. Tie it up on both ends and pour in approximately one quart of fresh water. The entire amount of salt, ginger and pepper should not be added, taste it first and season it accordingly. It should be cooked about as long as to cook eggs. The seasoning and the salt must be put into it according to one's own discretion, it must be tried first.

25 If you would make good bratwurst

Take four pounds of pork and four pounds of beef and chop it finely. After that mix with it two pounds of bacon and chop it together and pour approximately one quart of water on it. Also add salt and pepper thereto, however you like to eat it, or if you would like to have some good herbs , you could take some sage and some marjoram, then you have good bratwurst.

26 If you would make good liverwurst

First take a quarter of a pig's liver, also a quarter of a pig's lungs, chop them small, after that chop bacon into small cubes and put salt and caraway seeds into it. The liver and lungs must first be cooked, before they are chopped, and afterwards pour as much of this broth on the chopped meat as you feel is enough. Then take the intestines from the slaughterhouse and fill them full, then you have good sausage.

27 If you would make good pickled tongue. They are best made in January, then they will keep the whole year

First take twenty five tongues or as many as you will and take them one after the other and pound them back and front on a chopping block, then they will be long. After that pound salt small and coat the tongues in salt. Take then a good small tub and put salt in the bottom, after that lay a layer of tongues as close together as possible, put more salt on them so that it is entirely white from salt. In this manner always place a layer of tongues, after that a layer of salt, until they are all laid out. Then weigh them down well so that they are covered by the brine and allow them to remain for fifty days, afterwards hang them for four days in smoke. When they have smoked enough, hang them next in the air, then you have good smoked tongue.

28 If you would put up good vinegar that will remain good and strong for a long time, recipe from the Stettnerin of the parlor

Take a jug into which can hold twenty quarts and spread it with pitch, next take two pounds of tartar and pound it small and put it into the jug, take four ginger roots, some thirty or thirty-two peppercorns, take fourteen quarts of good vinegar and pour it in the jug, take six quarts of good wine and bring it to a boil and skim it off. Afterwards let it cool somewhat and pour it into the jug and let it stand for four weeks. See that you do not stir it up, then it will be good and keep well.

29 If you would preserve game for a long time

When it is an entire red or roe deer, then skin it and take out the entrails and hang it in a cellar without any drafts. After that you must baste it every day, inside and out, with wine. And put inside it nettles or mint. When it is washed out inside with wine you must lay in it fresh herbs, then it will keep for a long time. When it is just a piece of game, however, then lay it in a trough with fresh nettles and mint over or under it and baste it every day with wine.

30 To make Genovese tart

Take eighteen ounces of chard or spinach, three ounces of grated cheese, two and one half ounces of olive oil and the fresh cheese from six ounces of curdled milk [2]. And blanch the herbs and chop them small and stir it all together and make a good covered tart with it.

31 To make ravioli

Take spinach and blanch it as if you were making cooked spinach, and chop it small. Take approximately one handful, when it is chopped, cheese or meat from a chicken or capon that was boiled or roasted. Then take twice as much cheese as herb, or of chicken an equal amount, and beat two or three eggs into it and make a good dough, put salt and pepper into it and make a dough with good flour, as if you would make a tart, and when you have made little flat cakes of dough then put a small ball of filling on the edge of the flat cake and form it into a dumpling. And press it together well along the edges and place it in broth and let it cook about as long as for a soft-boiled egg. The meat should be finely chopped and the cheese finely grated.

32 To preserve veal a long while

As soon as it comes from the butcher, salt it right away and afterwards rub it down with vinegar every day. And when you would use it, by all means let it soak in water for six hours beforehand.

33 To prepare dried cod, from the gracious Lord of Lindau, who was Bishop in Constance

First take river water and ashes and add caustic lime, which should be rather strong, and soak the dried cod therein. Allow it to soak for a day and a night, afterwards drain it off and pour on it again the previously described caustic lime solution. Let it soak again for a day and a night, put it afterwards in a pot and wash it off two or three times in water, so that the fish no longer tastes like lye. Put it then in a pot and put water therein and let it slowly simmer so that it does not boil over. Allow it to only simmer slowly, otherwise it becomes hard. Let it cook approximately one hour, after which, dress and salt it and pour salted butter over it and serve it. Also put good mustard on the outside in about three places. One must also beat dried cod well before it is soaked.

34 To make the mustard for dried cod

Take mustard powder, stir into it good wine and pear preserves and put sugar into it, as much as you feel is good, and make it as thick as you prefer to eat it, then it is a good mustard.

35 To make a good Barbianisch [3] tart

Take a half pound of fat and let it melt in a pan, take after that a quart of cream and pour it into the fat and let it simmer together. Afterwards take ten eggs and beat them with a small spoonful of good flour and beat them well, so that the dough will not be lumpy and afterwards beat the other ingredients with it and beat it all especially well and mix everything together thoroughly and let it cook together again until it becomes fairly thick. And sweeten it however you like to eat it. And when it has cooked, then salt it a little and put it in a pie crust and let it bake.

36 To make an English tart

First take one third of a quart of cream, some three quarters of a pound of fat and a quarter pound of sugar, which must be allowed to cook with the milk and the fat. After that take six eggs, according to how [large] they are, and, also six egg yolks, beat two eggs with a small spoonful of flour and stir it until smooth, and when it is well-beaten, then beat into it all the eggs, put it all in a pan and let it simmer together until it becomes fairly thick, and watch out that it does not burn, and when it is cooked then salt it a little and pour in a little rose water on it while it is still warm, and let it bake.

37 If you would make a good appetizer

Take a brain and let it be well roasted, divide it into small pieces, take a grated Semmel and beat eggs into it, also milk, spices, saffron and something green, put fat into a pan and roast it well, then it is good.

38 To make elderflower pudding

Take elder flowers, boil them in milk and strain them, make a firm dough from eggs and flour and roll it into a thin flat cake, cut it into the shape of little worms and put them into the milk, salt it and put fat into it and let it cook.

39 To make a blue pudding

Bruise cornflowers and press them with water through a cloth. If you want, blanch almonds in it, whose milk is then blue. Afterwards make a pudding with it.

40 To make a dish of peas

Cook peas so that they become mushy, put them in a colander and strain as for almond milk. Strain saffron, ginger and cinnamon with it. Then it looks like a worm. Sprinkle sugar over it and serve it cold.

41 To make a Kachelmus[4]

Take milk and the same amount of egg yolks, take fat and melt it in a small pan, pour the milk and egg yolks into it, and let it it thicken in boiling water and lay in out nicely with an iron spoon, in pieces in the bowl. It is sometimes called Milk-in-the-Pot.

42 To make a pudding in a bowl [5]

To make a pudding in a bowl beat together eggs and milk, wet a pewter bowl, put melted fat therein, set it on a grill, under which are glowing coals, pour the eggs and milk into the bowl and cover with another bowl. And when the upper bowl begins to sweat, then you must wipe off the water with a clean cloth and cover it again, until it becomes firm. Then heat fat and to pour over it and pour it off again, so that it becomes brown on top.
43 To make a fig pudding

Put wine in a small pot, and when it begins to boil, then put in grated Lebkuchen and grated Semmel. Put saffron, almonds, raisins, figs and some fat into it.

44 To make a wine pudding

Take grated bread crumbs, brown them in fat until they become crisp, put in good wine and egg yolks in it and sweeten to taste.

45 To make a lung pudding

Cook the lungs, chop them small, roast them in fat, beat eggs into it, put spices and meat broth into it, then it is ready.

46 To make sour cherry pudding

Strain the cherries, as if you were cooking syrup, take a grated Semmel, fry it in fat, take the puree and pour it in, let it boil and sweeten it with sugar.

47 To make a pudding which falls out of the pan by itself

Beat eggs and milk together and put into it a grated Semmel, so that it becomes a thin batter, let it cook and sweeten it, then it is ready.

48 To prepare crayfish

Boil the crayfish well, remove the back and front shells and pound them in a mortar. Take then a toasted Semmel and put pea broth on it and strain it through a clean cloth or a fine-meshed colander, and a little good wine. Salt it and temper it with good spices, saffron, cinnamon, ginger and sugar. Take fat, stir flour into it and pour the strained crayfish thereon and let it boil. After that sprinkle sugar upon it. This is a good lordly dish.

49 To make a good almond pudding

Then pound the almonds well, put them in a bowl and pour good cream therein, not too much. Whip the almond paste very well, so that it becomes smooth, put sugar therein and allow it to cook for a short while. When you serve it sprinkle sugar on top, then it is a lordly pudding. Take three fourths of a pound for a dish.

50 To make a grape pudding

Strain grapes with good wine, but the grapes should be well washed beforehand. Take the strained pulp and cook it, as one cooks pudding, and mix it with wine and put sugar, cinnamon and a little ginger into it, according to how sweet or strong you will have it.

51 Almond chanterelles

Pound the almonds, as you would to make marzipan, put sugar thereon, but not too much, take after that the chanterelle mushroom mold, clean it and take a small brush, dip it in almond oil and brush the mold with it, also with a brush of rose water. And put the almond paste into the mushroom mold and blow through the tube [so that the almond mushroom falls] onto a sheet of paper, and let it bake in a tart pan and sprinkle it with starch flour, then they will be white.

52 To make turned out eggs

Open the egg on the tip and mix the yolk and the white, also a little salt, together. If you would like, you can stir some ginger into it. Next pour it in fat, so that everything falls out and the shell remains intact.

53 To make a fence out of butter

Take butter or May butter and sugar, knead it in, so that it becomes sweet, and then take an icing bag and fence it around. The fence posts that go with it, make from cinnamon sticks. Also there belongs inside the fence, roasted fish or whatever you have that is good.

54 To make an egg pudding

Beat eggs and milk together and brown bread crumbs in fat and pour the milk and eggs therein, and let it cook and salt it.

55 To make snow

Dilute cream and put it in a pot. And take an eggbeater and stir it thoroughly, until it forms snowy foam on top. And toast a Semmel and lay it in a bowl and sprinkle sugar over it and put the foam on the bread, then it is ready.

56 To make filled Semmel

Then cut slices, as if you would fry them, and spread syrup over them, sugar and spices as you would like to have it. And turn them in a batter made from egg yolks and fry them and cut small slices from them or serve them whole.

57 So that jellied fish becomes clarified

Wash the the fish clean in fresh water and cook the well in wine. Afterwards pour off the broth and put in more wine, which should be hot, and let it simmer slowly and cook isinglass with it, so that it becomes firm and make it good with spices, however you like to have it, and pour the boiling hot broth thereon.

58 To make smoked pork

Take a quarter of a pig and salt it especially well, so that it is entirely white with salt, and let the salt dissolve in a cellar. And when it is dissolved, then skim off the water and pour it over again, do that two or three times a day, and when it has laid in salt for four weeks, hang it up and smoke it fairly slowly, until it becomes thoroughly dry and fairly hard. Let it hang in the smoke for eight days, after which hang it in a chamber into which air comes. It keeps for the entire year.

59 If you would make good smoked beef

Then prepare the meat for smoking, as wide as three man's fingers, and salt it well so that it becomes white from the salt, and when the salt has dissolved, then skim it off and pour it over again or from the bottom to the top, so that the salt comes over it all. And when it has laid for four days in the salt, then hang it up and smoke it with juniper twigs. Let it hang for three days, then it is very red.

60 To make a veal pie

Take pieces of veal from the leg and boil them in water, about as long as it takes to hard boil an egg. Afterwards take them out and chop the meat small, and take suet from the kidneys and cut it small and chop it with the veal. And when it is finely chopped, then put it in a bowl and put some wine into it and an ample ladelful of broth , pepper and a little mace, which should be whole. Crush it a little by hand so that it in small pieces, put in it raisins and saffron and stir it all up together with a spoon, put cinnamon in it also, and taste it, however it seems good to you.

61 To make a pastry dough for all shaped pies

Take flour, the best that you can get, about two handfuls, depending on how large or small you would have the pie. Put it on the table and with a knife stir in two eggs and a little salt. Put water in a small pan and a piece of fat the size of two good eggs, let it all dissolve together and boil. Afterwards pour it on the flour on the table and make a strong dough and work it well, however you feel is right. If it is summer, one must take meat broth instead of water and in the place of the fat the skimmings from the broth. When the dough is kneaded, then make of it a round ball and draw it out well on the sides with the fingers or with a rolling pin, so that in the middle a raised area remains, then let it chill in the cold. Afterwards shape the dough as I have pointed out to you. Also reserve dough for the cover and roll it out into a cover and take water and spread it over the top of the cover and the top of the formed pastry shell and join it together well with the fingers. Leave a small hole. And see that it is pressed together well, so that it does not come open. Blow in the small hole which you have left, then the cover will lift itself up. Then quickly press the hole closed. Afterwards put it in the oven. Sprinkle flour in the dish beforehand. Take care that the oven is properly heated, then it will be a pretty pastry. The dough for all shaped pastries is made in this manner.

62 How one should make jellied fish

Take pike and carp and slaughter them and scale them and cut the fish up in pieces and wash them thoroughly and cleanly. Put them in a trough, put the scales in a pan and wine thereon, let it boil well. Afterwards strain it well through a cloth bag. After that put the fish over the fire and add to it that which was strained off. Next put good wine therein, and if you would make it good, you could also put one or two quarts of Malavosia in it, as much as you would like. And color it nicely yellow [6] and salt it, taste it and let it cook until it is enough. Afterwards lay the fish in a bowl and sprinkle the bowl beforehand with mace, cinnamon and raisins. After that put the broth on the fire and put sugar, ginger and cinnamon therein, and taste it, until it is good. Afterwards pour it in the bowl and throw almonds in it, as many as you would have. If you are afraid that it will not become firm, then you could let a little isinglass cook in it. We have made two dishes, one with eight pieces and one with six pieces, and have used for it four quarts of good old Würzburger wine and three quarts of Malavosia.

63 How one should prepare Zerena

Pound two pounds of almonds. The almonds should be soaked in cold spring water and then removed, they will become very white, and wash them with spring water, after which they should be dried with a good white cloth. Next pound them as small as possible, and when they begin to become oily, put in rose water until they are no longer oily. After that, when they are very well pounded, put them in a bowl. Take before that two quarts of water, spring water, put it in a pot, put four ounces of good isinglass in with it, let it boil down to not quite one third of a quart, then you will see whether it is sufficiently thickened. You could put more or less into it, depending upon how good the isinglass is. Take a clean coarsely-woven cloth, put the almonds in it and strain it through with the water. After that take the wax mold and lay it for a while in cold water and wash it clean with a soft white cloth. After that dry it well with a clean cloth, so that it is no longer wet. Take after that sweet almond oil, take a small feather and spread the oil very carefully in all the little corners, so that the mold releases all the better, afterwards put the Blechding[7] in the mold and pay attention that it comes in the middle. Close the mold and stick it together well on the edges with almond paste, so that it does not run out when something is poured in. Next take thick string and tie the mold firmly closed. Set it afterwards into about three quarts of flour, so that the top is at the bottom, set it directly into the flour. Next put the strained almonds in a brass pan over the fire and let it cook about as long as to cook an egg, afterwards take it from the fire and let it cool, so that it is lukewarm. One should not pour it in when it is too hot, also not too cold, but just so that it is exactly right. Let it set overnight and in the morning take it out. Do it carefully so that it does not break into pieces. Afterwards let a wood carver or painter gild it and prepare it for you. After that set it in a dish and pour almond milk on it, then you have a Shauessen.[8]

64 To make a fish pastry from trout, carp, Selbingen[9] or bream

Open the fish and pull out the entrails and cut diagonal slashes in it, let the fish remain otherwise whole. Take pepper and ginger, mix them together well and a little cloves, and salt the fish well inside and out. Take butter or another fat and put it on the inside and outside of the fish. Make the pastry as for any fish and let it bake.

65 The dough for the pastry

Take rye flour, according to how large the fish is, take it, and put water, about three pints, in a pan and a good quarter pound of fat into it, and let it cook together, put the flour on the table and put the solids from the melted fat-water on top, until it makes a good firm dough. You must knead it well so that it becomes good and sticky. Afterwards make two parts out of it. First the bottom, roll it out as large as the fish is. After that lay the fish on the bottom crust and roll out the top crust just as wide and put it over the fish and shape it like the fish. Make fins on it and take a small knife and make dough scales, also eyes and everything which a fish has. And put it in the oven and spread it with an egg. Then you have a fish pastry.

66 A game pie

Take beef fat, and chop it small, and rosemary, which can be fresh or dried. If you have none, take marjoram or anise or sage, as much as you would like. Chop them finely together, put cloves, pepper, ginger and salt into it, as much as you would like, pour one pint of wine on it. The game must be cooked beforehand. And make a shaped pastry the same way as for the veal pie, and let it bake, serve it warm. In this manner one can also prepare a loin roast.

67 A game pie

Take a hind leg from a red deer and divide it for three pies, the bones are good afterwards for game soup. Then boil the three pieces, which are for the pies, well, after which take them out and lay them on a platter or in a trough and salt and pepper them well and let them lie there overnight. Afterwards mix a dough out of rye flour. First pour about a quarter pound of flour on the table and put into a pan about one quart of water and one pound of fat and let it dissolve together and bring it to a boil and pour it afterwards on the flour, until it is sufficient, and make then a strong dough and work it well. After that remove some dough, about one third, and roll it out into two rounds, according to how many pies you need or want to make. Next put the game on the bottom round and put afterwards the top round on it and shape it, however you would like to have it. After that take a bag [of water ] and spread the bottom crust on the edges. Afterwards press the top dough onto the bottom so that nothing runs out, arrange it with a small knife and crimp it, however you would like it, and shove it in the oven.

68 To make a quince pie

Peel the quinces and cut the core cleanly out with a knife, fry them in fat. After that stuff the quinces with currants, sugar, cinnamon and cloves. Afterwards take beef marrow or finely chopped kidney suet or skimmed fat from some other meat and put good Malavosia or Reinfal on it, sugar, cinnamon and cloves, however it seems good to you. The dough for the pie is found in number [sixty one].

69 A pastry from a capon

First pluck the capon and let it boil, afterwards take it out and remove the small breast bones and chop beef fat small and put the fat in a bowl. Put two quarts of good wine therein, a good portion of lean broth, pepper, ginger, cloves and a little ground nutmeg. Two peeled lemons or limes are also good. After that prepare an oblong shaped pastry crust. The way in which you should make the pastry is found in number [sixty one]. In the same way you can prepare chickens, doves and birds of all kinds for pies.

70 A tart with plums, which can be dried or fresh

Let them cook beforehand in wine and strain them and take eggs, cinnamon and sugar. Bake the dough for the tart. That is made like so: take two eggs and beat them. Afterwards stir flour therein until it becomes a thick dough. Pour it on the table and work it well, until it is ready. After that take somewhat more than half the dough and roll it into a flat cake as wide as you would have your tart. Afterwards pour the plums on it and roll out after that the other crust and cut it up, however you would like it, and put it on top over the tart and press it together well and let it bake. So one makes the dough for a tart.

71 Another tart with fresh plums

Take the stones cleanly out and cut them open in the middle and make the tart and sprinkle sugar and cinnamon on the bottom crust and after that lay the plums as closely together as possible and put sugar and cinnamon on them again. Put also some butter thereon. Make after that the tart dough in the manner which is recorded in number [seventy].

72 A tart made with sour cherries, cherries and white currants [10]

Take out the stones and take abundant sugar and butter and a little ginger and let it bake not quite half an hour. If you would like, use cinnamon and no ginger. And fry a grated Semmel first in fat and put it on top of the Weichseln, Amarellen and sweet cherries and prepare along with it small pastry shells, fairly high, as for pies, and cut wide slices of Semmel, [put] them on the bottom and take out the stones. Put butter or another fat on it. Make the pastry for the tart as in recipe number [seventy].

73 A pear tart

Take pears and peel them and cut them into thin strips, take beef marrow, cinnamon, sugar and raisins and let it bake. If you do not have any marrow then use butter or another fat.

74 An apple tart

Peel the apples and take the cores cleanly out and chop them small, put two or three egg yolks with them and let butter melt in a pan and pour it on the apples and put cinnamon, sugar and ginger thereon and let it bake. Roast them first in butter before you chop them.

75 Another apple tart

Peel the apples, slice them and roast them, cut the cores cleanly out. Chop them small beforehand and put beef marrow thereon and grated bread crumbs. Stir it together well, stir into it also cinnamon, sugar and raisins and let it bake.

76 An almond tart

Shell the almonds, pound them very small and strain them through a copper sieve. Take cream or sweet milk, take five or six egg yolks and let it bake. If you would like, you can mix rose water in with it, or else not.

77 A liver tart

Take liver from a calf or a lamb, cook it until it becomes soft, take rich meat broth, chop the liver small and put salt, ginger and pepper in it and let it bake.

78 An egg tart

Take eight eggs, beat them well and take one quart of milk. Let it boil in a pan and put the eggs into it and stir it around until it becomes thick, and let it become cool, so that the water evaporates. Put in it sugar and a little butter. If you would like, you can also put into it ground almonds and rose water. And let it bake.

79 An apple tart

Peel the apples cleanly and take out the cores, chop them small and fry them in fat, put raisins, sugar and cinnamon therein and let it bake.

80 A pear tart

Cut out of each pear eight or twelve slices, according to how large the pear is, fry them in fat, take them after that and lay them nicely around the tart and sprinkle them under and over with sugar, cinnamon, cloves and raisins and let it bake.

81 An almond tart

Take the almonds and pound them as small as possible, with them rose water. After that put them in a small bowl and put egg whites therein, until you think that it is enough, and a spoonful of cream. Afterwards spread it out the and bake it.

82 Spritzgebackenes

Then take one third quart of milk and let it boil and take wheat flour, as if you were making steamed buns, and take six or eight eggs and beat them in one after the other until the dough becomes very soft and put through a pastry bag and fry it slowly.

83 If you will bake good pocket buns [11]

Then take flour and beat eggs into it, as much as you like, and put milk therein. As many egg as you use, so take a half eggshell full of milk, put it in and stir it together well and salt the flour and let fat melt in a pan and pour the dough in the pan and let it become very dry over a small fire and cut it into nice wide slices and fry it.

84 If you would bake Fesser[12]

So bring milk to a boil and stir flour and fat into the milk and stir it around well in the pan, until the dough becomes fairly dry, do not brown it very much. Afterwards take it out and crumble it up, until it becomes cold. After that beat eggs into it and let it remain fairly firm. After that make nice small rolls, then it is ready.

85 If you would bake good large buns like Semmel

Then take milk, bring it to a boil, put two small crumbs of fat into it, also put salt and a small drop of water into it, Stir in flour, one or two spoons, according to how much you will make, make the dough in the pan very dry, put it in a bowl, beat eggs into it, until you think that it is right, take afterwards a small iron spoon and with it put the buns into the pan, let it fry slowly, then they are ready. Lay the eggs in warm water.

86 If you would bake good fried Strauben

Then bring water to a boil and pour it on the flour, stir it together well, beat eggs into it and salt it, take a small Strauben funnel, which should have a hole as wide as a finger, and let the batter run through and fry the Strauben. The batter should be warm.

87 To make a pear tart

Then take the pears and peel them and remove the cores and divide the pears into two parts and cut them into slices as wide as the pear is and turn them over in a little good flour. Then heat up some fat and roast them therein, until they are a little browned, afterwards prepare the pastry shell and lay them on top of it, close together. Take cinnamon, sugar and raisins mixed and sprinkle them on the crust and over the top of it, let it bake a while. After wards take Malavosia, put sugar into it and cinnamon, let it boil together, pour it over the tart and let it cook a short while.

88 A molded and fried pastry

Take eight eggs and beat them well and pour them in a sieve and strain them, put a little wine in with it, so that it goes through easily, the chicken embryo remaining behind. Afterwards stir flour into it, until you think that it is right. Do not make the batter too thick. Dip the mold in with proper skill and let them fry, then it is well done. Salt the eggs [13].

89 To make a strawberry tart

Make a pastry shell and let it become firm in the tart pan. Afterwards take strawberries and lay them around on top as close together as possible, after that sweeten them especially well. Next let it bake a short while, pour Malavosia over it and let it bake a while, then it is ready.

90 If you would like to make chicken on head lettuce

Then take a pot and lay a handful of lettuce in it and a chicken on top, again a handful of lettuce and a chicken and so forth. Take after that good broth, which should be rich, and put a good piece of butter into it and salt it and boil it, until you think that it has cooked enough. Put a little mace into it. One must, however, use head lettuce and it should be washed clean beforehand, then it is ready.

91 Another game pie

Take the game and cook it and lard it well, and salt and pepper it well, otherwise it needs no other spices. And make the dough as usual for a pie but do not make a formed pastry from the dough for the game, instead make a broad flat cake and lay it on top and fold it over as for a doughnut and make a pretty wreath around and let it bake and put a little fat into it. This pastry is better cold than warm.

92 If you would preserve bitter oranges in honey

Then take the peels and cut the white from them and soak them for three days in wine, afterwards take them out and bring honey to a boil and skim it clean and pour it over them and put them in a box made of green wood and let them remain awhile, then they will be good.

93 If you would make a grape tart

Take the grapes, with raisins mixed among them. Take them whole, put sugar thereon and cinnamon and shake it well together and put it on a pastry shell. Let it bake a little while. Then put some Malavosia thereon and let it bake a while longer, then it is ready. When you put the grapes on the tart, then put them beforehand in a pan and put nothing in it, neither wine nor water, and fry them, stirring them all around well therein, then they will swell up nicely. Only after that put them in the tart, as you would have it.

94 To make a good almond pudding

Take the almonds and pound them as small as you can. Afterwards take the almonds and grind them until they become smooth, and stir in a little butter and a good portion of rose water, until you think that the thickness is right. Put it into a dish and leave it there and serve it cold. Put sugar into it, then it is ready.

95 If you would bake good hollow doughnuts

Take good flour of the very best and pour on it one third quart of cream and beat eggs into it, six, seven, eight, according to how much you will make, and knead the dough as carefully as possible and roll it out very thin. Afterwards fry them, then from the inside they will rise like tiny pillows, then they are ready.

96 If you would make cheese buns

Then grate an especially good Parmesan cheese and put grated white bread thereon, until it becomes very thick. Afterwards beat eggs into it, until it becomes a good dough. After that make good round balls, the same size as scalded buns, and let them fry very slowly, then they are ready.

97 If you would make chicken buns

Then take the meat from hens and let it cook beforehand, after that chop it small and put grated a Semmel thereon and eggs thereon, until you think that it is a good thick dough. Afterwards make fine round little balls and let them fry very slowly and roast them.

98 If you would make a pastry with small birds

Take a plentiful number of birds and make a layer of birds and a layer of bacon slices, until the pastry is filled. Also put a few grapes into it. And let it bake a little and put a small drop of good wine thereon and then it is ready. If you have no fresh butter, then use beef suet.

99 To bake white Lautensternchen

Take flour and pour cold water thereon and salt and make the dough thick and thin it with pure egg whites, until it becomes thin enough. After that take a small Strauben funnel, which should have a very small hole, and take a small pan, and it should run through so that it looks like Lautensternchen[14] and fry them therein.


If you would make a dough for almond or syrup pastries, then make it with wine and color it yellow, then it is ready.

101 To make apple puffs

Then put flour in a bowl and put some fresh spring water therein. It should not be too thin. And beat the batter very carefully, thin it after that with eggs, and when you put the thin apple strips in the pan of butter, then shake the pan well, then they rise up.

102 To bake snow balls

Prepare the dough as for Hasenörchen[15], but roll it out as for oblong pancakes, only somewhat wider, and cut nice slashes into it, and raise the dough high with a spindle, one strip over, the next under, the next one over again. And lay them in a small mortar and let them bake, then they are good.

103 If you would make rice buns

Then let the rice cook beforehand and pound the almonds, make it thin with eggs and bake it, then it is good. Put also sugar into it.

104 If you would make an egg tart

Then take eggs and milk and prepare them as for an egg cake and put almonds and sugar into it. It is delicious and good.


Take a quarter pound of rice and three quarter pounds of almonds and a quarter pound of sugar, let the rice cook beforehand in cream and stir everything, almonds, rice and sugar, together and let it bake.

106 To make an herb tart

Take one handful of sage, a handful of marjoram and some lavender and rosemary, also a handful of chard, and chop it together, take six eggs, sugar, cinnamon, cloves, raisins and rose water and let it bake.

107 To make a quince tart

Take quinces and cook them well and strain it and put sugar, cinnamon and strong wine thereon. Apple and pear tarts are made in the same way.

108 If you would make a white tart

Take egg whites and pour a pint of cream thereon, and let it cook in a pan until it thickens, and put rose water in it and spread it out, then it is good.

109 If you would prepare a good pike

Cook it sour and salt it well and if it is large, then take the bones out and press it onto a grate and lay it after that in a frying pan and pour olive oil over it and vinegar, then it is ready.

110 If you would prepare pike in another way

Take a half pound of bacon and the crumbs from a Semmel and four onions, chop it all finely together, take wine vinegar and salt and put broth and fish, everything together, then it is ready.

111 If you would make almond cheese

Take a half pound of almonds and rose water and sugar and clarified butter. And set it in a dish and pour almond milk over or on it, then it is ready.

112 To make an almond pudding

Take a half pound of almonds and pound them as small as you can. After that hollow out two Semmel and soak them in sweet cream and stir it all together and put rose water thereon, then it is a good cold pudding.

113 To make a good pear pudding

Cook the pears in good wine and strain them and put cinnamon, cloves and sugar therein and a toasted Semmel, then it is ready.

114 To make wrapped birds

Take brown bread, hollow it out cleanly, take small birds, cook them beforehand and put them into the brown bread. Take blanched almonds and raisins, cinnamon and ginger, put everything together in the brown bread. Make a dough and paste up the covers. Next make the batter with wine. Fry it in fat, then it is ready.

115 To make a rice tart

Take a quarter pound of rice and cook it in water and take a few almonds and pound it all together well and beat eggs into it. And when it is almost finished baking, then pour hot fat on top, then it will form a hard crust, so that it becomes good.

116 To make an almond tart

Take a quarter pound of almonds and pound them small. Afterwards take half of the almonds and make a quart of almond milk out of it. Next take fifteen egg yolks and beat the milk into them. After that take the remaining almonds and a spoonful of sugar and stir them into the eggs and milk. Afterwards take fresh fat and let it melt in a pan and put everything in it and let it simmer, until it becomes thick like a pudding. Afterwards spread it out and put a little fat on top, then it is good. Sprinkle sugar on top.

117 To prepare chopped chickens

Take good chickens, as many as you like, lard and roast them well. And when they are roasted, then divide each chicken into four parts. And cut [slices of bread] and pour Malavosia on them and lay on each slice a quarter of the chicken. And sprinkle Triet[16] on each slice. Take young onions and lay them on the chickens, then they are ready.

118 If you would prepare an eel in a yellow sauce

Then prepare the eel, as they should be prepared, and make little pieces out of it and wash them clean. After that put it in water and salt it well, so that the taste of salt predominates. Cook until it is half done. Afterwards pour off all of the water and make an especially good yellow sauce for it with wine. And make sure the spices are pronounced. And finish cooking it in this sauce, then it is cooked.

119 If you would make boiled dumplings

Then take chard, as much as you like, some sage, marjoram and rosemary, chop it together, also put grated cheese into it and beat eggs therein until you think that it is right. Take also cinnamon, cloves, pepper and raisins and put them into the dumpling batter. Let the dumplings cook, as one cooks a hard-boiled egg, then they are ready.

120 If you would make a game pie, which should be warm

Lard the game well and cook it and make a formed [pastry] dish and lay in it preserved limes and cinnamon sticks and currants and lay the game therein and also put beef suet into it and a little Malavosia and let it cook. This pie is better warm than cold.

121 To make an Italian tart

Take twelve pears and roast them quickly over a lively fire, until the peel is charred and the rest becomes soft, afterwards put them through a strainer and put sugar, cinnamon and twelve eggs therein. Make a thin batter with eggs and pour it into a hot tart pan and let it bake until it becomes hard and pour the mixture onto it and let it bake.

122 To make a cream tart

For three tarts, which should each be about a foot wide, take one quart of the best cream that you can find, and put it in a pan over the fire. And put two eggs, which are well beaten, into it, and when it begins to boil, then take six more eggs and let them be well beaten and put them into it, and some good flour and pour it slowly into the pan. And one should stir it constantly, so that it does not burn. After that, when the eggs have been poured in, throw a quarter of a pound of fresh butter into it and let it simmer together, until it becomes thick. Afterwards let it cool, and when it is cold, then put it into three pastry shells, each of which is a foot wide. And let it bake in the tart pan. If you would put it straight away on the table, then sprinkle a quarter pound of sugar over all three, together with a little rose water. And one should serve it forth while it is yet warm. This recipe was given to me by the elder Bernhard Meiting, I have not yet prepared it.

123 To make a very good sour cherry tart

Take a pound of sour cherries and remove all of the pits. Afterwards take a half pound of sugar and a half ounce of finely ground cinnamon sticks and mix the sugar with it. Next mix the cherries with it and put it after that in the pie shell made of good flour and let it bake in the tart pan.

124 To make a very good apple tart

Peel the apples, and remove the cores, and them be afterwards be finely chopped. After that put a half pound of sugar and a half ounce of finely ground cinnamon thereon and make a dough for a tart and spread it on top.

125 To make a good tart with roasted apples

Peel the apples and cut them into four pieces, cut out the cores, and put them in pot, which should be well covered, and let them stew in the pot. One should watch them frequently, so that they do not scorch. Afterwards spread them on the pastry shell, which should be made of good flour, and put a half pound of sugar and a half ounce of finely ground cinnamon therein.

126 To roast a chicken nice and tender. Recipe from Doctor Mosser

Slaughter the chickens, as many as you will, like so: You should wring their heads with your hands and also lay them on the ground until they are entirely dead, and you should neither stick them nor bleed them. Afterwards, when they are dead, take them and beat them like a partridge, then eviscerate them and do not let them get wet with water or anything else and lard them well and stick them on a spit, until the fat runs out. After that take the spit down and heat the fat and place the spit in a vertical position and pour that from underneath inside the chicken and not on the outside and let it roast, then you have a good roasted chicken.

127 A good bread pudding

Take grated white bread, stir it in a pan with meat broth and let it cook together, so that it becomes a mushy. After that take four egg yolks, which have been beaten with cold broth, and let it cook together.

128 To make an egg tart

Make a dish of egg-milk with ten eggs and three quarts of milk. Pour it on a cloth so that the water trickles out, pour it in a bowl and stir it up well. Put an abundance of sugar and cinnamon into it. And if you think that it has not drained off well enough, then beat into it two more eggs and strain the water off. Make a pastry shell with an egg and put a hazelnut-sized piece of fat into it and roll the dough out well. Pour the filling on the crust and bake it slowly until it is crisp, or else it will be doughy.

129 An egg tart with beaten eggs

Take eight eggs for a repast and beat them well and prepare them as for an egg dish. Take a half handful of blanched almonds, pound them small and put rose water therein, take a half handful of rice and let it cook a little, pour it on a cloth, so that it drains, and pound it with the almonds, take the beaten eggs and mix them also into it. Put cinnamon therein, pour it on a small pastry shell, let it bake nicely, so that it becomes brown, and when you will bring it to the table, then sprinkle it with cinnamon.

130 To make a sour cherry tart

Take the sour cherries, take out the stones and make a pastry crust as for the other tarts. Take bread crumbs from grated white bread and fry them in fat. Pour them on the crust, sprinkle sugar and cinnamon on top, Put the sour cherries in it, leaving their juice in the bowl, sprinkle it well with sugar and with cinnamon, make a crust on top of it, let it bake, as it is customary.

131 To make a pear tart

Take the pears and peel them, then fry them in fat, put them into a mortar and pound them well, put rose sugar and rose water in it, put ginger, cloves, cinnamon and sugar therein. Taste it, make a pastry shell as for other tarts, make no cover for the top and bake until crisp.

132 A cinnamon tart

Take a half pound of ground almonds, more or less, according to how large a tart one will make. Take butter and the whites from seven eggs. Mix everything together, afterwards put a half ounce of cinnamon into it, the largest part, however, sprinkled on top, and sprinkle the tart with rose water. Also take about a half pound of sugar and put it in. The white fat from a leg of veal, cooked and finely chopped, is also especially good.

133 An herb tart

First, take a small handful of hyssop, mint, chard and sage. There should be three times more of chard than of the other herbs, according to how large one will make the tart. Take clarified butter and fry the herbs named above therein, take raisins, small currants and sugar, as much as you feel is right. Take then eight eggs, beat them carefully into that which is described above and make a pastry shell with an egg and bake it slowly.

134 A pastry with cream

Take three quarts of cream and three eggs, beat it well, put sugar and cinnamon therein, put it in a pot, uncovered, take a pastry pan. And cook an ounce and a half of peas, grate almonds into it, put clarified butter therein and put it into the pot.

135 An egg tart

Take twenty eggs and as much milk as eggs and beat it well together. Let it cook together like egg-milk, then stir sugar into it. Make a pastry shell and roll it smooth. Then put rose water therein and put it into a tart pan, put heat under and over it, bake it until brown.

136 A bread tart

Take white bread and grate it, take cream, stir it together, so that it becomes thick like a pudding. Take six egg yolks, beat them well and with spices thereon, put everything together in a pastry shell, and bake it like other tarts.

137 An egg tart

Take three quarts of milk, put it over the fire, let it simmer, put twelve eggs into the simmering milk, spread it on a coarse cloth, put sugar into it, according to how sweet you will have the tart, put rose water into it, put it on the pastry shell and bake it.

138 An almond tart

If you will make a good almond tart, then take a pound and a half of almonds for a large tart and pound them very small. Take the whites from eleven or twelve eggs and put a little rose water into them and sugar, according to how sweet you will have it and put it also in a pastry shell. And when it is half baked coat it with rose water. Afterwards put it in again.

139 A green tart

Take chard, pull it to pieces like a cabbage, put with it parsley, sage and marjoram, chop everything together well, roast it in fat, take five eggs and grated bread, stir it also therein, put sugar into it and spices and make a pastry shell as for tripe and put the herbs on top and bake it as for any other tart.

140 Apple pillows

Take good apples, peel them and cut them into four pieces. Take flour, eggs and water and salt, make a batter, not too thin , pour the apples into it and put fat in a deep pan. When it is hot, put the pieces into the fat, until the cake rises, let it fry slowly. Turn it, let it also fry on the other side, then it is good.

141 To bake Strauben for a meal

Take six eggs and a little milk with water, salt it, beat it together well and put the flour into it. Do not make it thick, then it is right.

142 Small scalded buns

Take three spoons of flour and of cold water, mix in the flour as thin as for Strauben. Take fat the size of a large nut, let it become hot, pour the batter into it, make it fairly dry, take eggs, lay them in warm water and now at this time beat an egg into it and make it so that it piles up on a plate. Afterwards put it in the pan with an iron spoon and let it fry slowly.

143 An almond tart

Take a pound of almonds for an abundant meal, pound them small, pound rose water with it, so that it does not become oily, and when they are small, then mix one or two egg whites with them. Put them in a bowl, mix them with the egg whites until they become like a thick pudding, and put some sugar therein until it becomes very sweet. Take wafers, take rose water and stick the wafers together. Spread the almond paste as smoothly as possible on it, stick another wafer on top, make a thin yellow batter and draw each side through it, then they look as if they are golden. Fry them in fat or bake them in a tart pan.

144 To bake small cakes for a meal

Take fourteen eggs and for each one a half eggshell full of milk and as much water, then add flour and make it as thin as a Strauben batter. Take a small tart pan and put fat into it so that it is greased and heat it. Pour the batter into the pan with a weak heat both over and under it, so that it dries out, cut long thick strips, lay them in fat, which should not be too hot, and shake the pan. You can also cut shapes like nut shells out of the dough.

145 An exotic pastry

Take dried pears. Wash one and one half ounces of peas, cook them, strain them, take a handful of grated bread, make a batter with the pea puree, turn the pears therein to coat them and fry them. Make a sauce, however you would best like to have it.

146 Nürnberger pastry

Take, for a meal, ten freshly laid eggs, beat them, take half as much milk, take flour, make a sticky dough, put four spoonfuls of sugar into it, salt it a little, let fat become hot in a pan and put the dough therein. Pour off the fat again and put a cover on the small kettle. Take a pan of boiling water, set the kettle containing the dough into it and let it cook. Look at it often, so that is does not become too thick, and when you think it is right, then take it out. Put fat into a pan over the fire, do not let it become too hot, cut the dough as long and thick as a finger and lay it in the pan, until the slices rise. Then fry it slowly.

147 A good pastry

Take almonds, pound them small, put sugar and rose water on them, then take wafers, spread the almond paste as thin as possible on top and place a wafer over it. You can cut them in circles or triangles. Press them together well, make a pretty yellow-colored batter and draw each side through it and lay them in fat and pour fat on top of them, then they will rise up. Lay them on a clean cloth.

148 A good soup

If you would make a good soup, then take cream and a spoonful of good flour. Put the sugar therein, afterwards put it in the cream, let it cook together.

149 To make Bohemian peas

Take one and a half ounces of peas, cook them until dry, so that they are not too wet, and pound them in a mortar, so that they become a fine mush. Put good wine on them, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom and sugar. Serve it cold, sprinkle it with sugar. It is a good and lordly dish.

150 To make a cream pudding

Take three quarts of cream and the whites from twenty eggs, beat them well together, put it in a new pot and stir it around. Make a strong fire away from the pot. You can serve it warm or cold. When you serve it, sprinkle sugar on top.

151 To bake good Lebkuchen

Take first a pound of sugar, a quart of clear honey, not quite a third quart of flour, take two and a half ounces of cinnamon, one and a half ounces of cloves, two ounces of cardamom. Cut the other spices as small as possible, the cinnamon sticks are ground as coarsely as possible. Also put ginger therein and put the sugar into the honey, let it cook together, put the flour in a trough, pour the cardamom into it first, afterwards the ginger and the other spices.

152 To make a good roast

Take veal or a sirloin of beef, lay it overnight in wine, afterwards stick it on a spit. Put it then in a pot. Put good broth therein, onions, wine, spices, pepper, ginger and cloves and let it cook therein. Do not over salt it.

153 To prepare an Easter lamb

Take the lamb and draw off the skin and leave him the ears and the feet and the tail , cover with a wet cloth, so that the hair does not burn. Roast the whole lamb in this manner in the oven on a board. And if you would like for it to be standing, then stick a spit into each leg. When it is almost roasted, then baste it with eggs and take it out. Let it cool, take a cloth that is three spans long, fill it full of butter and bind it up and press it through with a stick. It gets crinkled like real wool, then take it and make wool out of it for the lamb. Stand it then on a nice board. Make a fence out of butter around it, in the manner which follows. [17]

154 A lamb of another sort

Make it exactly as the preceding description, cover it, however, with a multicolored covering. It is made like so: Take eggs, put the whites separate from the yolks, beat the eggs, put some salt into it and sugar, take a pan, put pure fat into it, let it become hot, pour the fat completely out of the pan, put the egg white into it, let it run here and there around the pan, hold it over the fire, not too long, however, only until it begins to quiver. Afterward hold the pan on the fire, until it becomes dry, and hold it not too near, so that it remains white, and make in this way as many pancakes as you wish. Do not make them too thick, not thicker than a thin cloth. Afterwards make the yellow ones exactly like this, put saffron in the egg yolks. Brown is made precisely so, take cherry jam strained through with the eggs and make pancakes out of it. So you have four colors, cover the lamb with them and cut the colors according to the length, as wide as you would like. After that take cinnamon sticks, make small nails out of them, push them with the thick end into Strauben batter, which should be yellow and fry them in fat, then they have buttons. If you would like, you can gild or silver them. Then take hard-cooked eggs and cut them open at the end, take the fried cinnamon sticks, stick them through the tips of the eggs and fasten the colors in the fashion on the lamb. And color half the eggs yellow and leave the others white. Make a fence from good spices around the lamb, put the lamb on the board. After that take smoked meat, that is very red, cook it and cut off the outside. Chop it very small, then take eggs, cook them hard, cut them apart, the white from the yellow, chop each by itself, and when the lamb is ready, then put the white on one side of the board and the yellow on the opposite side, in one place or the other lay the whole hard-cooked eggs on it and also the pancakes, also if you have it or want it, honey. This lamb is better for eating than that described earlier. When the meat is prepared in this way, it does not become ugly and everything is edible except the board.

155 To prepare chicken in rosemary

Set the chickens in broth, so that the broth completely covers the chickens. Let them cook about halfway and take rosemary, about the length a finger bone, from the bush. For a meal put a good handful on the chickens, but not too much, so that it does not become bitter. Take after that the livers from all the chickens, let them boil up in the broth and put some good mace therein. Let it cook together well, before you serve it.

156 To make a grape pudding

First clean the grapes and wash them well and press them. Take a little of it and put fat into it and put it on the fire as for fermented wine and finely grate a Semmel into it, slowly, so that it does not become lumpy and let it cook and serve it. And sprinkle sugar on top. Then it is good.

157 To prepare veal or hens

If you would prepare good veal, young chickens or hens, then cut the chickens or hens into four pieces and boil them all together in a good broth, as if you would cook them completely. And when they are a good halfway done, then take some green parsley and three fried slices of bread and the liver from a hen or from a chicken and tear it all up into pieces in an earthenware vessel and take the broth in which the chickens were cooked, strain it through a sieve and pour it over the hens or chickens . Let it cook over a small fire, put some saffron and pepper therein, then you have a good parsley sauce. And set it with the chickens on the fire, from this it tastes good.

158 Sauce for birds

Take fried bread slices, strain them with broth and a little vinegar, after that put saffron, cloves, pepper and some raisins therein.

159 Sauce for partridges

Take fried Semmel and the gizzards of chickens and some parsley. And grind them and strain them all together well, put saffron, cinnamon and some broth therein.

160 To make flat cakes

Take egg-milk, which should be well strained, beat fresh eggs therein and raisins, throw it in a pastry crust and let it bake slowly.

161 To bake white Strauben

Take egg whites, well beaten, and some wheat flour, make a thin batter out of it, and let it run through a skimming ladle. Turn the Strauben at once in the fat. Wind them around a rolling pin, then they become curved.

162 To bake Spritzgebackenes

Take one quart of water or milk for a meal and put it into a pan. Bring it to a boil, stir good flour into it, so that the dough becomes fairly dry, take it out of the pan, roll it out well, but with additional flour, put it into a mortar, blend it well with eggs, until it becomes good and sticky, put it in a pastry bag, fry them slowly.

163 To make Nürnberger Lebkuchen

Take one quart of honey, put it into a large pan, skim it well and let it boil a good while. Put one and a half pounds of sugar into it and stir it continually with a wooden spatula and let it cook for a while, as long as one cooks an egg, pour it hot into a quarter pound of flour, stir it around slowly and put the described spices in the dough, stir it around slowly and not too long; take one and a half ounces of cinnamon sticks, one and a half ounces of nutmeg, three fourths of an ounce of cloves, three ounces of ginger, a pinch of mace, and chop or grind each one separately so that they are not too small, the cinnamon sticks, especially, should be coarsely ground. And when you have put the spices in the dough, then let the dough set for as long as one needs to hard boil eggs. Dip the hands in flour and take a small heap of dough, make balls out of it, weigh them so that one is as heavy as the others, roll them out with a rolling pin, and spread them out smoothly by hand, the smoother the prettier. After that dip the mold in rose water and open it up. Take four ounces of dough for one Lebkuchen. Be careful and get no flour in the molds or else they will be no good, but on the board you can put flour so that they do not stick to it. Let them set overnight. And when you take them to the baker, then see to it that you have another board that is thoroughly sprinkled with flour, so that it is very thickly covered. Put the board with its covering of flour into the oven so that the board is completely heated, the hotter the better. Take it out afterwards and lay the Lebkuchen on top, so that none touches the other, put them in the oven, let them bake and look after them frequently. At first they will become soft as fat. If you take hold of them you can feel it well. And when they become entirely dry, then take them out and turn the board around, so that the front part goes into the back of the oven. Let it remain a short while, then take it out. Take a small broom, brush the flour cleanly away from the underside of the Lebkuchen and lay the Lebkuchen, in the mean time, on the other board, until you have brushed off the Lebkuchen, one after the other, so that there is no more flour on the bottoms. Afterwards sweep the flour very cleanly from off the board. Lay the Lebkuchen on top of it again, so that the bottom is turned to the top. Take a bath sponge, dip it in rose water, squeeze it out again, wash the flour from the bottoms of the Lebkuchen. Be careful that you do not leave any water on the board, then they would stick to it. Afterwards put the board with the Lebkuchen again in the oven, until the bottoms rise nicely and become hard, then take the board out again. See to it that two or three [people] are by the board, who can quickly turn the Lebkuchen over, or else they will stick. Afterwards take rose water and wash them on top with it as you have done on the underside. Put them in the oven again, let them become dry, carry them home and move them around on the board, so that they do not stick. And when they have completely cooled, then lay them eight or ten, one upon the other, wrap them in paper and store them in a dry place, see that no draft comes therein, then they remain crisp.

164 To make a large Nürnberger Lebkuchen

Take a quart of honey and a quarter pound of sugar, prepare it as for the smaller Lebkuchen, take one quarter pound of flour and then the spices as follows: one half ounce of cinnamon, one ounce of cloves, one and three fourths ounces of nutmeg, four ounces of ginger, one fourth ounce of mace. Stir it carefully around, afterwards roll the dough out somewhat. Bake it as for the smaller Lebkuchen.

165 To bake sour cherry puffs

Take hot water, lay fat the size of a walnut into it, and when the fat is melted, then make a batter with flour, it should be thick. Beat it until it bubbles, after that thin it with egg whites. If you like, you can also put a few egg yolks into it. Tie four sour cherries together, dip them in the batter and fry them. Shake the pan, then they will rise. The fat must be very hot.

166 To bake puffed apples

Take milk with a little water in it and heat it well, until you can still just stand to dip a finger into it. Make a firm batter with flour, beat it until it bubbles, lay eggs in warm water and thin the batter with them. Cut the apples in circles and as thin as possible, draw them through the batter and coat them with it. Shake the pan, then they will rise. And the fat should be very hot, then they will be good and rise nicely.

167 To make venison sausage

Take the liver and the lungs from a red deer, also good roast meat and deer fat, bacon, spices, saffron, ginger and mace as well, chop it all together and cook the sausage in a suitable broth.

168 Marinated fish

Take a fish, scale it, pour wine and pea broth on it, season it with ginger and pepper and put broth in it, not too much. Let it cook well, do not oversalt it. In this manner one can put up any fish in a yellow sauce.

169 Jellied fish and suckling pig in a basket

Prepare it like so: Set a clean basket into a small clean tub, lay the fish and the suckling pig in it, pour broth into the basket, as high as you would like. Be careful that the basket is centered in the tub in which it is set, so that it fills up all the corners. And when the aspic begins to firm up, then cut the hoops from the tub, as for long jellied fish, then the aspic and fish will remain in the basket. Subsequently tear the basket off with a clean cloth.

170 To prepare a fish, boiled, grilled and fried

Make it like so: Draw the intestines out through the gills and cut it a little in the stomach. Take a good white linen cloth and wrap it around the middle of the fish, cut small notches in the tail, salt it, sprinkle flour on it and salt the inside of the fish and lay it on the grill. Have wine and vinegar in a pan so that the broth cooks and is well salted. Baste the fish there, where the cloth is, then the broth goes through onto the fish. Turn it often, baste the section where the flour is with fat, sprinkle it on top, and let the front part grill. Treat each part as it is due, then the cooked portions become excellent and good. Give it good care regarding the basting and the heat, and when it has cooked in this manner, boiled, fried and grilled, then take the cloth off again. Serve it cold or warm.

171 Stuffed pike

Stuffed pike is made like so: Cut the pike open a little along the side, put a knife into it and cut out the large bones at the neck and peel the skin off of the pike, so that the skin remains whole. Then take the pike and remove the bones, chop the flesh, put milk into it and carp blood, and season it and stuff it again into the skin, yet the head and tail remain on the skin. Do not oversalt it and sew it closed again with coarse silk and roast it on a grill. And when it is roasted, then draw the string out again.

172 Pike in May butter

Take a pike, let it come to a boil in salted wine with water, and when it is half done, then draw the skin off of it and put the flesh in a pan and put a large amount of fresh butter, good wine, ginger and cinnamon thereon. Do not oversalt it and let it cook together. Do not make too much sauce.

173 How Shrove-Tuesday doughnuts are made in Nuremberg

Grate Parmesan cheese or any other cheese which is quite dry. Beat eggs into it and also mix a little good wheat flour with it so that the doughnuts do not become too crisp from the cheese. Make the dough firm enough that it does not run. After that make an egg dough as for a tart, make long narrow flat cakes and with a spoon lay a small lump of cheese dough, as large as you would like to have it, in the middle of the flat cake and wrap it over. And with both thumbs press each heap well into the flat cake forming a small bun, then cut it off with a small metal blade. When you would fry them, you should not let the fat become too hot, instead just after it has melted, lay quite a few of them in the pan, fry them slowly. Shake the pan, then they will become like marbles.

174 What to do to beer, so that it can be kept for a long time without becoming sour

First, broach the cask, let two pints or more drain off into a glazed pot. Take a handful of coriander seeds, make a small bundle out of them in a clean white cloth, but not too big, so that you will be able to put it into the top of the beer keg at the bunghole. Tie it closed with a string, leaving a long piece. After that lay the bundle with the coriander in the pot, set it on the fire, let it boil together for about as long as a hard-boiled egg, do not let it run over. Afterwards set the pot with the beer aside and let it fully cool. You should not cover it. After that bring clay from a potter which should not have been worked, knead salt into it and work them together, then it will be nice and soft. Next take three freshly laid eggs and throw them unopened into the beer from the top. After that hang the small bundle with the coriander seeds in it, also pour the beer from the pot into it, take a good handful of hops from a beer brewer and close up the top of the bunghole by spreading it with the hops. Afterwards set a small unglazed pot over it on top and plaster it up well along the rim.

175 To make currant vinegar

Take a quarter pound of currants and a pint of wine and a pint of vinegar and let it boil up two fingers high. And when it has boiled, then put it into a glass and put two ginger roots into it and set it behind the oven. It will become a better, sounder vinegar.

176 To make a good May cake

Take a pound of raisins, a pound of currants, five small portions of May butter, a handful of hyssop, a handful of ground ivy, some sage, about ten leaves, two times as much mint, a handful of costmary, approximately fifteen eggs and a half pound of sugar; the herbs finely chopped, baked for two hours. The butter must be stirred into the herbs. For the crust, two eggs, which are prepared as for a tart.

177 To make an apple tart

Take apples, peel them and grate them with a grater, afterwards fry them in fat. Then put in it as much grated cheese as apples, some ground cloves, a little ginger and cinnamon, two eggs. Stir it together well. Then prepare the dough as for a flat cake, put a small piece of fat into it so that it does not rise, and from above and below, weak heat. Let it bake slowly.

178 Another tart

Take four glasses of milk, twelve eggs and seven ounces of sugar and one half ounce of ginger and some ground cinnamon. One must afterwards beat everything together, then put a little fat into a pan and put the batter into it and stir it around, until it begins to thicken. Then put the cover on the pot and hot coals over it. And there should be no more heat on top of it than under it, or else the batter will be bubbly. And when you see that it begins to set up, sprinkle some cinnamon and sugar on top.

179 A white sauce

Mix a few almonds and bread crumbs together and pound them small and strain them together with vinegar through a small soup sieve. If you would have it stronger, mix wine into it.

180 Sugar holliplen[18]

Take about a quarter pound of white sugar, or as much as needed according to how many you would make, and put it in the mortar so that it can be pounded as small as possible. Before that take one ounce of tragacanth and soak it in approximately one quart of rose water, and it must be soaked for three days in rose water. Afterwards put a little of it into the mortar, it makes everything will hold together. And pulverize it, until it becomes a good thick dough and you can roll it out. If you should thin it too much, you can put sugar into it again and pound it well. Afterwards take the dough out from there onto a smooth stone and shape it like a Semmel. And put abundant sugar on the stone so that the dough does not stick for you. After that take a smooth rolling pin, rub it down well with sugar and roll out a flat cake as flat as possible, the thinner the better. After that cut out a small round piece of paper, however you would like to have the holliplen and lay this paper holliplen on the flat cake and cut them out. Afterwards take a small fine rolling pin and roll the holliplen around it. After that lay them on a sheet of paper in the oven, in which there should be a fire, yet do not allow the oven to be too hot. When they are hard, then they are baked, then take them out carefully, so that they do not break into pieces. If the flat cake has become so hard that you can no longer use it, then it must be put into the mortar again and a little of the soaking liquid put on it and also sugar put on it and pound it well again and after that take it out and roll it out as at first. One should not, however, make too much in the first place.

181 In the year of our Lord 1548 on the 25th of January the master cook Simon, cook for the counts of Leuchtenberg, instructed me to prepare jellied fish in the following manner

First he took a pike weighing two pounds and skinned it and cut slashed notches into it and divided it into pieces. He had also previously prepared a dish with aspic [with] two trout, each weighing about one pound. He scaled them a little on the back, afterwards shaping them prettily so that the head and tail stood up high and he cooked them. He put water into a pan over he fire, let it boil, also salted it, also poured some vinegar over the trout, after that laid the trout in the broth, so that the broth covered them well, afterwards let them simmer. Do not, however, allow them to cook too quickly or else they will not stay erect. They become entirely blue. And let the trout remain in the broth for three hours and they them afterwards on a pewter plate. After that he put the pike in a pan, put a little salt therein and one quarts of Neckar wine and let it come to a boil. Next he put into it somewhat more than one quart of isinglass water, also saffron, pepper, sugar, as much of each as he felt was right. He let it cook very slowly over a small fire and skimmed the froth with a skimming ladle, after that strained the broth into a pot and laid the pike in a dish and let the broth run three times through a wool or canvas sack, so that it became nice and clear. Following that he poured it on the pike but did not allow the bowl to get too full and let it stand until the following day. After that he took the bowl in which he had put the two trout and poured into it about two fingers high of broth from the jellied fish. Do not over fill it. Also reserve a good part of the broth for the next day. Then prepare white, yellow, brown, black, green as follows. First the white color which is made like so: Pound almonds small and strains them with isinglass water, that is the white color. Then take the white color and color it yellow, then it is yellow. After that take trysolita [19], which is a brown cloth, and lay the cloth in isinglass water and wring it out, then it becomes brown. The black is made like so: Take rye bread and toast it well on a grill, then pound it into a powder and strain it with isinglass water, then it becomes black. After that take a handful of spinach or chard and pound it in a mortar and strain it with isinglass, then it becomes green. Afterwards send it to a painter and let a bowl in which there is no fish be painted with the five colors, however you would like it, with coats of arms or plants. Everything can be eaten. The aspic should become firm beforehand, before you paint upon it. Afterwards, when that which you want has been painted, also letters, then set the two trout into it and pour the remaining broth over it, until the broth is as full as you would like it. And then let the aspic become firm, then it is ready.

182 If you would make a white aspic

Then take almonds and soak them overnight with spring water, then they become white. In the morning remove them and let them be pounded or grated as finely as possible. Afterwards take the spring water and four oxen feet and put them in a pot. Let them cook well, but the feet should be washed well beforehand. Let them simmer slowly like a soup, so that the broth does not become too cloudy. You can also put some isinglass into it. When it has cooked in this way, so that you believe that the water has boiled and thickened enough, then strain it through a cloth bag, pass the almonds through with it, as much as you would like to make. Afterwards take it and put it into a brass pan and let it boil as long as a soft-boiled egg. Put abundant sugar into it and some good rose water. Then let the same broth run through a wool sack up to three times, or as long as it takes to become clear. Afterwards pour it into a bowl, reserve a little of the broth, so that you can pour it over whenever you would like. In this manner let it become firm in the bowl. After that cut out what you will and pour yellow, black and brown into it, as you will, then it is a pretty aspic. Afterwards you can pour the reserved broth over it again.

183 If you would make blomenschir [ Blancmange]

Then take the breast from a capon, when it is yet alive, and lay it in cold water. After that blanch it in warm water. Then set it in a small pot and let it cook, put no salt in it, and when it is half done take it out into a bowl. When it is cold, then pull the meat into threadlike pieces. Afterwards take a half pound of rice, pick it over and wash it clean and allow it to dry again. Then put it into a mortar and beat it well. In this way it becomes flour, which is run through a small sieve, and put this flour in a small kettle or pan, the shredded capon in with it. Afterwards take sweet milk and boil it in a clean vessel. Then set the milk and the rice next to each other over glowing coals and pour the milk slowly thereon and stir it slowly and constantly with a wooden spoon into the rice flour. Do not forget it, and let it cook until it is like a wheat porridge and sprinkle sugar into it thoroughly and some rose water. And put it into a dish, salt it a little. If you would serve it cold, then let it cool. And when it is cold, then with an iron spoon, lay it attractively in pieces in a bowl. You can also serve it well warm and can make doughnuts out of it as well.

184 To make a warm dish with bitter oranges

Then take the outer yellow peel from bitter oranges and cut the white away and cut small slices like tripe and wash them in water. And put them into a small pot, put water thereon and let it boil. Afterwards wash them again in fresh water and bring them to a boil once again. Do this twelve times, you must always use fresh water. Or taste it, as long as it is still bitter, you must continue to wash it and bring it to a boil. Then, when it is no longer bitter, wash them in clean water and put fat over the fire and fry them in the fat. After that put good sweet wine thereon, sugar, small currants and raisins.

185 If you would fry white Strauben

Take an egg white and a spoonful of water and of flour and stir it together well until the batter becomes smooth. Put sugar in the batter and make it thinner than other batters. Make eight or ten small holes in a small pot [let the batter run through] and fry it through that. And make nice long strips, as long as the pan. They are not as thick as other Strauben. Make a round stick three fingers wide, so that the pastry can be wrapped over it, and twist it around with the stick and take it out, and when you have taken it out, then take hold of the pastry and curve it over the stick so that it goes together like a Hohlhippe. And set them on a board, one after the other, and always set two close against each other. This is pretty around a tart.

186 To make an herb tart

Take spinach, blanch it and chop it and grate Parmesan cheese into it, a little pepper, small raisins, melted butter therein. Salt it and bake and make a tart out of it, as one normally makes covered tarts.

187 How to make milk tarts

Take two pints of good milk and bring it to a boil and put into it a fist sized piece of fat and beat ten eggs, put them into the milk and then when it is well blended, so that it becomes very firm, then watch out, that it does not burn. Take it off and pour it onto a cloth, so that the water runs off and let it cool. Put afterwards sweet wine into it, some cream, sugar and small raisins, salt it a little, and make a tart dough under it, but don't cover it.

188 To make a date tart

Cut up the dates and take out the pits, cook them in sweet wine, let them boil a little, lay them attractively on a pastry shell and sprinkle sugar and cinnamon on top of it, and lay the dates in a circle. And again sprinkle sugar and cinnamon on top. And make a cover over it and pour on it some of the broth in which the dates were cooked, and let it bake.

189 To make an almond tart, recipe from Mastercook Simon

Let the almonds be pounded small, with them sugar, sweet milk or cream, the whites from four eggs. And put sugar therein, make a tart out of it and let it bake. You should not, however, make a cover on top of it. Serve it cold.

190 To fry small holliplen

Take good flour, the best that you can get, as much as you would like to make, and put some water, sugar and pepper thereon. Also melt a little butter in a small pan and pour it also therein, but it should not be hot, but just as it is about to harden up again, then the holliplen will be more easily released from the iron mold. And make the batter about the same thickness as Strauben batter. You should also pour rose water into it. And fry them on a cast iron mold. Grease the iron also with butter.

191 To prepare a pike in a Hungarian sauce

Take the pike and skin it and divide it into pieces. Take good wine, finely chopped apples and let them cook together about a half of a quarter of an hour. Then lay the pike therein and let it cook and season it with about eight lemons and some sharp vinegar and color it yellow. And let it cook until it is done.

192 If you would make a Polish sauce for pike

Chop onions small, one to six, according to how large they are, put them in a clean pan with pea broth, let it cook for half of a quarter hour and put the pieces of pike into it, salt it and season it well with pepper and color it yellow. And let it cook together well, until the pike is done. After that, serve it.

193 How to make chicken dumplings

Take the meat from two chickens. After it is cooked chop it finely, mix grated Parmesan cheese in with it and color it yellow and stir it together. You should also put mace and pepper into it. After that prepare a dough. Make a thin flat cake and put the above described filling on it and form it into a dumpling and join the two ends together. Cook it in broth as long as for hard- boiled eggs and serve it warm.

194 A mustard [20]

Pound almonds small and strain them with vinegar through a clean cloth bag, then it is called white mustard. If you would have it yellow, color it yellow, then it can be served with calves's or deer feet.

195 To make Milchköpfe

Take approximately ten eggs and a pint of milk and a half handful of good flour and strain it through a clean cloth, color it yellow and salt it. After that make pastry shells and set them in a hot oven and pour a little into them. When the pastry has become somewhat firm, then, after a while, add some more. Continue to do so until they are filled about a finger's breadth below the rim. Afterwards let them bake, pour more into them once more in the oven.

196 Brisetten are made in the following manner

Cut veal from the haunch, cut it into fine, thin strips about a finger's thickness and beat them thoroughly on both sides with the back of a knife. Take kidney suet and chop it small, mix with it all savory herbs, such as parsley, marjoram, sage and what ever savory herbs you can obtain, and salt, pepper and cinnamon among them. And if it should not be moist enough, you could add meat broth. And spread it on both sides of the veal strips. Afterwards roll them up together and stick them on spits and set a frying pan under them. Roast them well in their juices, and baste them often in the juices which run out, and that which normally runs out and remains with the broth in the fat pan, pour it over it and serve it thus. It is a good dish.

197 How one should prepare oysters

Wash the oysters very clean and open them, salt and pepper them and lay them on the grill in the half shells in which you have found them. And pour butter on them, that is, in the shells, and let them roast in a good heat as long as one roasts eggs. Then bring them warm to the table, so that the butter remains in them.

198 To prepare an aspic on a wheel, recipe from Mastercook Simon

First take the broth from boiled carp and pike and mix isinglass with it and let the broth simmer. Take sugar, ginger, pepper and cinnamon and color it yellow. Taste it, make it however seems good to you. Afterwards let it run through a sack until it becomes clear. Then prepare a small tub as wide as the wheel and about a hand's breadth deep and set the wheel into it. After that you must pour the broth into it and when it becomes firm, then break the tub into pieces and take the wheel out of it and set it again on the spike. The trout must be fastened over the tip. The method for cooking them remains as before. Afterwards let the iron piece at the bottom be fastened to a dish by a gold smith. And underneath make a white aspic, make black letters therein, whatever you would like, and pour a brown aspic over it, when the white has become firm. It should be only lukewarm, so that the white does not melt again. And watch out that the aspic on the edges is especially firm, or else it will not hold. This is an attractive table centerpiece.

199 To make Spanish pastries

First prepare a firm dough with eggs and fat and roll it out very thin, as long as the table, and sprinkle ground almonds and sugar, butter or fat over it and roll it up over itself like a sausage. Afterwards cut it in pieces and close up both ends. In this manner make one after the other and turn the underside to the top. And bake it in a smooth pan, with fat in the pan. And let it bake in a weak heat, with a hot cover over the top, and serve it cold.

200 To make a raisin tart

Take raisins, wash them in water and rub them between the hands as one does to rub off the grape stems. Drain off the water, so that they become dry again. Rub them until the black skins become dry, then pick them over and clean them well and put sugar and cinnamon on them.

201 How to prepare a capon with lemons

First take a capon, which should have been stabbed two days before, in this way it becomes tender. When it is cold, let it freeze and pluck it beforehand, When it is not cold, it should not be plucked before it is needed. Afterwards wash it clean and put it in a thoroughly clean ox bladder and tie it up well with raffia, so that no water can get inside. And salt the capon inside and put some mace and cinnamon thereon, after that put it into a pot and fill it with water and let it cook until it is done. Afterwards take the capon of the bladder along with the broth. And remove the wings, thighs and heart and lay it in a dish and cut two lemons into very thin slices and put them all over the capon and pour over it the capon broth which was in the bladder. If there is not enough, one can also pour a good meat broth over it. And set it over the heat and cover it with a bowl and let it cook, not too long, or else the broth will become bitter from the lemons. When it is ready, one should serve it. It is a good dish.

202 To make smoked tongue, recipe from Herr Jörg Fugger

Take fresh tongues and cut the throat completely from it. Then they should be well pounded or beaten, lengthwise, over a block or a chair, not too hard, so that they are not smashed or do not become mangled. One must beat them until they become soft underneath and also at the tip. They do not, however, become as soft at the tip as at the back on the thick end. When they are so beaten, then put them into a trough with salt for a good while. Then they should be salted like other meat and a nice red raw beet cut into cubes and also peas sprinkled under them and in between them and over the top of them, but not all too much, and let them stay thus for a day or overnight in a warm place. Then lay a small board over them and a good heavy stone and let it remain so for four weeks. If, after four or five days, they should not be covered with brine, finely chop some red beets and cook them in water and drain the water off the beets and pour a glassful of vinegar into the water. The water should be cool enough that one could just bear to dip a finger into it. One could also cook a few peas with the beets, if the broth would otherwise be too red, and put the red beets and the likewise red peas together with the salt on the bottom and in between and on the top. They can lie for five weeks or longer, and when they are hung, the thick ends should be turned to the top, poke a hole through them with a baling needle and hang them on a coarse thread in a kitchen, which has no chimney, and not over the fire in the thick smoke, so that the outsides become nicely brown, they become splendidly brown.

203 To prepare a meat aspic

If you would prepare approximately three seemly dishes, then take from a pig the ears, tail and hooves, which you already know are used for aspic. Chop veal bones into pieces, and take about four or five pieces of pork, whatever you consider right. The pork should be cooked separately in one quart or a little more of wine and a half-quart of vinegar. And the veal should also cook, but not as much as the pork. It needs one-half quart of wine, or a little more, mixed with two quarts of vinegar. Afterwards salt it a little. The pork needs more time to cook than the veal. And skim it well and watch out that it does not boil over. And when it has cooked a little it should be seasoned, also put some sugar into it, and when it is done, and it should be well-done, the fat is taken off and after that strain the both through a linen cloth into a clean pot and afterwards mixed with sugar and spices, however you think it is good, and put on the fire and allowed to boil again. One should also put some elecampane [21] into it, so that the broth becomes clear. The bowl should be sprinkled with cinnamon and raisins. Afterwards lay the pieces of meat in the bowl, however you think it right, and pour over them the broth, when it has come to a boil and before that shell about a half pound of almonds and put them into the bowl, as many as you like, then you have a good aspic.

204 How to make verjuice from early grapes

First take the unripe grapes and pound them and strain them. And in one quart of juice put a handful of salt and put it into a small vat and stir it around everyday, then it becomes a good verjuice.

205 How to make quince bread

Take two pratzamer[22] of quinces and boil them in water so that they lie closely together. And when they are cooked, take them out, peel them cleanly and thoroughly and pass them through a hair sieve, until you have a little less than a half pound. And take two ounces of sugar. The sugar must be refined beforehand. For each pound of sugar take a quart of water and after that an egg white. And put the quinces into a large bowl and stir it around with a big wooden spoon for as long as a soft-boiled egg cooks. And after you have stirred it well, then put an egg white into it and stir it around as long as before. And when you have stirred it, then put two spoonfuls of refined sugar into it and prepare it each time as at the first. Continue until you have put into it five eggs and the stated amount of sugar, then take wafers cut into long strips and spread it on them, however you would have it. And lay them on a board and lay it on the oven. Be careful that the oven is not too hot. And when it begins to dry out on top, then put them on a board in back of the oven, until they have dried out. The sugar must stay in weak heat the entire time, so that it does not become cold. Then they are ready.

Selected Bibliography

Beer, Gretel. Austrian Cooking and Baking . New York: Dover Publications, 1954.

Ehlert, Trude. Das Kochbuch des Mittelalters . Zurich and Munich: Artemis Verlag,1990.

FitzGibbon, Theodora. The Food of the Western World: An Encyclopedia of Food from North America and Europe . New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, 1976.

Georg, Carl. Verzeichnis der Literatur über Speise und Trank bis zum Jahr 1887 . Hanover, 1888. Leipzig: Klindwurth Verlag, 1974.

Gloning, Thomas. "Bibliography on cookery, food, wine, nutrition, etc.(ca.1350-1800)." Distributed at, 1997.

Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. Deutsches Worterbuch . Vol. 8. Edited by Dr. Moriz Heyne. Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1893.

Hazelton, Nika Standen. The Cooking of Germany . New York: Time-Life Books, 1969.

Maier-Bruck, Franz. Das Grosse Sacher Kochbuch, Die Österreichische Küche . Herrschin am Ammersee: Schuler Verlagsgesellschaft, 1975.

Schiedlausky, Günther. Essen und Trinken: Tafelsitten bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters . Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1956.

Schumacher-Voelker, Uta, “German Cookery Books, 1485-1800”. Petit Propos Culinaires 6(1980), 34-46.

Schumacher-Voelker, Uta. “Reprints of Old German Cookery Books”. Petit Propos Culinaires 7(1981), 47-55.

Tannahill, Reay. Food in History . New York: Stein and Day, 1973.

Toussaint-Samat, Magalonne. A History of Food . translated by Anthea Bell. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1992.

Welserin, Sabina. Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin . From handwritten manuscript, Augsburg, 1553. ed.. by Hugo Stopp, trans. by Ulrike Giessmann. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, 1980.

Wiswe, Hans. Kulturgeschichte der Kochkunst: Kochbücher und Rezepte aus Zwei Jahrtausenden mit einen lexikatischen Anhang zur Fachsprache von Eva Hepp . Munich: Heinz Moos Verlag, 1970.

Zotter, Hans and Heidi Zotter. Wohl Bekomm's! Alte Bucher übers Kochen und Essen . Graz: Universitäts Bibliothek, 1979

[1] Modern Cervelatwurst is also highly spiced and smoked, but contains beef as well as pork.
[2] This type of cheese is known today as Quark in Germany and Topfen in Austria.
[3] In his introduction to the 1980 modern German translation of this book, Hugo Stopp suggests that this refers to a place in South Tyrol called Barbian. Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin ., 14.
[4] Kachel is a glazed ceramic tile or in this case, a glazed ceramic dish. Mus refers to a variety of mushy or pudding-like dishes.

[5] This is also sometimes called Milk -in-a-Pot.
[6] To color any food item yellow the medieval cook normally used saffron or perhaps egg yolks.
[7] Blechding literally means metal thing, it is unclear exactly what function it serves, one possibility is that it is a funnel for filling the mold.
[8] Shauessen or foods for show were called subtleties in England and were typical in very large banquets as a display of wealth or grandeur, sometimes they were edible but not always.
[9] Selbingen may possibly be a fish known currently in German as Sailbingen.
[10] Despite being mentioned in the title, there is no mention of currants in the body of the recipe. It does call for sweet cherries, Kirschen, and two kinds of sour cherries, Weichseln and Amarellen.
[11] The German name for this bun is Sack küchlein . The word küchlein is generally used to refer to a chicken, but is also used in Swabia to refer to small cakes or buns. Sack can be translated as sack, bag or purse as well as pocket. In the late middle ages pockets were not part of the garment but a separate bag or purse, therefore translating sack as pocket encompasses many meanings of the word.
[12] Fesser or Fässer means barrels, an appropriate name for these round buns.
[13] The molds for these pastries are still available and consist of a decorative metal shape attached to the end of a long rod. The mold is dipped in to the batter and then into hot fat.
[14] Lautensternchen means loud or noisy small stars. What this is supposed to look like is unclear, perhaps it refers to some kind of fireworks, which this kind of funnel cake would vaguely resemble.
[15] Hasenörchen means little rabbit ears, a pastry also known as Polsterzipfel in Austria. There is no recipe given by Welserin for this type of dough but according to Gretel Beer in Austrian Cooking and Baking . New York: Dover Publications, 1975, P. 145: this type of pastry consists of a soft dough made with a fourth pound each of flour, butter and Topfen, (a sort of cream cheese known as Quark in Germany). Alternate versions of this dough use milk or sour cream, instead of the Topfen.
[16] Stopp cites Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, who call triet a “ground powder from various vegetables”. He goes on to suggest amaranth as a possibility. Stopp, Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin ,14.
[17] The method for making a fence out of butter does not follow, but is given in recipe number 53.
[18] Holliplen or Hohlhippen are pastries which are shaped around a metal form. These confections imitate Hohlhippen in the way in which they are shaped, that is round and rolled into hollow tubes.
[19] Possibly dyed with sandalwood. Stopp, Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin , 14.
[20] Even though this recipe is called a Mostrich, which is a northern German word for mustard, it actually is actually gets its strong flavor from vinegar and contains no mustard at all.
[21] The herb, Inula helenium.

[22] A Pratzamer may be equivalent to a large handful. Stopp, Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin , 14.

(c) Valoise Armstrong 1998